Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of 2014 to 6061 Aluminum Alloys
Welding cheap and ductile 6xxx Al alloys with high strength 2xxx Al alloys is desirable for instance in specific aeronautical applications. These alloys present different rheological behaviors and melting temperatures which affect the ability to produce sound dissimilar friction stir welds. Dissimilar friction stir butt welds made of 2014-T6 and 6061-T6 Al alloys were performed with various welding parameters including shifts of the tool from the initial separation between the plates to be welded and placing one alloy either on the advancing, or on the retreating side of the weld. Temperature measurements during welding, mechanical characterization (transverse tensile tests and hardness profiles) and macrographic observations were performed. Macrographies on sections perpendicular to the welding direction reveal different metal flow patterns in the weld nugget. If the 2014 alloy is placed on the advancing side of the weld, an abrupt transition between the weld nugget and the 6061 alloy is observed on macrographs leading to premature fracture in tension. Dissimilar welds are cooler on the 6061 side of the weld, i.e. the weakest side of the weld, than the corresponding 6061 similar weld, limiting the growth of the hardening precipitates. This leads thus to higher strength of the dissimilar welds. Dissimilar welds with the weld center shifted towards the 2014 alloy present lower temperatures than unshifted welds on the 6061 side of the weld, also leading to higher strength.
T. Chandra, M. Ionescu and D. Mantovani
C. Jonckheere et al., "Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of 2014 to 6061 Aluminum Alloys", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 409, pp. 269-274, 2012