Lead as Test Rolling Material for Hot Complex Rolling of Steel
The low deforming force of Lead (Pb) and the proximity of its stress-strain response make it readily preferred as test material for laboratory modelling of complex hot steel rolling. Structural steel recrystallises from a temperature of approximately 500 °C. For Pb, this process starts within the range of-3 °C to 0 °C. The room temperature rolling of Pb delivers reasonable information of hot rolling of steel. This is however dependent on various parameters which include; deformation rate, degree of deformation, alloying elements and previous heat treatments. This work studies the deformation behaviour of Pb 99.94 Cu by carrying out rolling operations at different deformation rates and deformation degrees. Tension and compression tests were used to determine the ultimate tensile and compression strength, the yield strength and the Young´s Modulus, respectively. Flow curves were subsequently determined and compared to that of selected structural steels. The microstructures were analysed and were correlated with the deformation parameters taking cognisance of the role of recrystallisation during the rolling process.
G. Tober et al., "Lead as Test Rolling Material for Hot Complex Rolling of Steel", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 428, pp. 84-88, 2012