Fluoride and Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Film by Spray Pyrolysis
Thin films of undoped, fluoride- and antimony- doped tin oxide on glass were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The aerosols were atomized from precursor solution by a commercial ultrasonic generator. Tin chloride(SnCl2.2H2O), ammonium fluoride (NH4F), and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as a source for tin, fluoride, and antimony respectively. For the undoped tin oxide film, the solution of 0.8 M tin chloride was used as a precursor solution. While fluoride-doped tin oxide films (FTO), the solution of 0.8 M SnCl2.2H2O in ethanol and varying amounts of NH4F dissolved in 0.2 M HCl (0.6 mL) were used as a precursor solution. The doping concentrations of NH4F were 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M. For the antimony- doped tin oxide films (ATO), the doping concentrations of SbCl3 dissolved in butanol (10 mL) are 0, 0.016, 0.032, 0.048, 0.064 and 0.080 M. The aerosols were sprayed on the hot glass substrates by air at a flow rate of 1 L/minute through a PVC and glass tubing for 20 minutes for every solution. Substrate temperature was kept at 320 ± 15 °C for undoped and fluoride-doped tin oxide films and at 390 ± 20 °C for antimony- doped tin oxide films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were characterized by four-point probe measurement and UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The best FTO film exhibits the resistivity of 53.83 W-cm and the light transmission of 88.18%. While the best ATO exhibits the resistivity of 61.03 W-cm and the light transmission of 86.45%.
R. Buntem et al., "Fluoride and Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Film by Spray Pyrolysis", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 55-57, pp. 513-516, 2008