Recent Trends in Advanced Materials

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Authors: Hélène Schmitt, Kalappa Prashantha, Jérémie Soulestin, Marie France Lacrampe, Patricia Krawczak, Jean Marie Raquez
Abstract: Bionanocomposites based on halloysite nanotubes (HNT) as nanofillers and starch as polymer matrix were prepared by melt-extrusion process using glycerol as plasticizer and glycerol monostearate as lubricant. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images show homogenous dispersion of HNTs in starch matrix. A Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) reveals the interaction between external hydroxyl groups of HNTs with C–O–C groups of starch. Upon halloysite addition, storage modulus, Young modulus and tensile strength increase without loss of ductility.
Authors: Vijayalakshmi Sanyal, M. Rajendran, C. Ramachandra Raja
Abstract: Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been the focus of biomaterials research as it is highly biocompatible and bioresorbable ceramic with relatively simple processing. Hydroxyapatite (HA) also helps in restoration of damaged or deceased bones. Several methods are proposed in preparation of HA from aqueous solution. In this paper, HA is prepared by direct precipitation reaction method using orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH)2 as precursors for various Ca / P molar ratio. The prepared HA was subjected to XRD and FTIR where the analysis reveals the presence of (CHA) Carbonate Hydroxyapatite which has excellent resorbable property. The present study substantiates that the fabricated material is of nanoscale. The variations in the amount of CHA for different Ca/P ratio were observed.
Authors: S.P. Prabhakaran, R. Santhosh Kumar, J. Jaganath, B. Naveena, P. Gomathi Priya
Abstract: The removal of phenolic compounds in effluents is major problem in industries. Degradation of phenolic compounds using co-culture microbial species along with individual specimens was studied. The COD reduction percentage showed a better degradation with co-culture. The degradation with microbial concentration as function of time was studied and shown an effective degradation with growth of microbial species on the fifth day. Parameters such as pH, temperature, ion sources for aerobic degradation are analyzed. Improving biomass growth and COD removal percentage of the co-culture showed a better degradation with pH range 7-8 at temperature of 35°C. Sodium ions are best suited for the growth of microbial organisms.
Authors: M Gajendiran, S. Balasubramanian
Abstract: . A series of biodegradable amphiphilic tri-block copolymers (PLGA–PEG–PLGA) have been derived from the diblock copolymer poly (lactic–co–glycolic acid (PLGA)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug pyrazinamide (PZA) loaded polymer nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by probe-sonication followed by w/o/w double emulsification technique. The copolymers have been characterized by FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques, TG-DTA analysis, GPC analysis and powder XRD pattern. The MTB drug loaded polymeric NPs have been characterized by FESEM, powder XRD, HRTEM and XPS analysis. The drug loading efficiency, drug content and in vitro drug release studies have been carried out by spectrophotometry. The drug loading efficiency and drug content of triblock copolymeric NPs were higher than these of diblock copolymeric microparticles (MPs). The in vitro drug release studies indicate that the NPs exhibit initial burst release followed by controlled release of PZA for longer durations. The drug release kinetics mechanism has been evaluated by zero order, first order, Korsemeyer-Peppas (KP) and Higuchi models.
Authors: S. Malathi, S. Balasubramanian
Abstract: Nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems have considerable potential for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). A series of PLGA polymers with different molar feed ratios (P2:87/13, P3:83/17, P5:63/37, P6:76/24, P9:53/47) were synthesized by direct melt poly condensation method. The resulting biodegradable polymers were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The preparation of the drug (Pyrazinamide (PZA)) encapsulated PLGA polymers were carried out by double emulsion – solvent evaporation technique. The drug loaded PLGA-NPs were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency and drug release kinetics varies in the following order: P9>P5>P6>P3>P2. Among the formulations, PP9 showed a uniform as well as sustained drug release. The drug release kinetics has been evaluated by Zero-order, First order, Higuchi and Koresmeyer- Peppas models and the release mechanism has also been investigated
Authors: G. Sivakumar, K. Amutha
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to utilize the waste material cow dung ash as a valuable material for recent research work. Silica was synthesized from cow dung ash by using sol-gel process. Characteristic parameters of cow dung ash heated to 650°C and synthesized silica were studied using different methods such as FTIR, XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. The amorphous quality of the sample was improved after the ash being calcined at 650°C. Using FTIR analysis, the presence of silanol and siloxane groups of silica was found. The amorphous nature of silica was confirmed by X-ray diffractogram. SEM studies reveal that the treated cow dung ash and silica were as flakes and in homogeneous form. The silica with higher than 99% purity with different grain size was obtained. The elemental composition of the sample was determined using EDS analysis.
Authors: Basak Piyali, Sen Sohini
Abstract: Ether based polyurethane film was synthesized and those were undergone curing process and membrane thickness was measured. The membrane was sliced in 2×2cm. Swelling study of the membrane was compared in water, tetrahydrofuran solvent and simulated body fluid. Membranes were set for biodegradation in simulated body fluid for three months. Besides that films were also degraded by esterase enzyme. Result of the two types of degradation was compared. After biodegradation characterization by FTIR-ATR mode, XRD was done for the degraded membranes and the characterization result was compared with that of no degraded membranes. To perform drug release study with antibiotic-ciprofloxacin, the membrane was first loaded with ciprofloxacin by placing in a drug solution of known concentration and then drug release pattern was verified periodically by estimating optical density (OD) of the different solutions of released drug by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Then antibiotic assay was performed with ciprofloxacin with the S. aureus strain and the obtained zone of inhibition was compared with the control sample. The drug release results were compared with antibiotics assay results. Besides that drug release was correlated with the degradation study results.
Authors: R. Lakshmi, Swamiappan Sasikumar
Abstract: Wollastonite is one of the most widely used bioceramic due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was synthesized by sol-gel combustion process using citric acid as a fuel/reductant and nitrate as an oxidant. Calcium nitrate was taken as a source of calcium and tetraethyl orthosilicate was taken as the source of silicate. The obtained product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier - Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The XRD pattern shows that the product formed is a pure and single phasic wollastonite. The FT-IR spectra revealed that there is no secondary phase present in the product. The SEM image shows that the product is highly porous. The particle size calculated using Scheerer’s formula shows that the particles are in a nano regime.
Authors: Debottam Sinha, K. Anwar, K. Kumari, S. Jaishwal, S. Madeshwaran, S. Keshari, D. Rajan Babu, R. Vidya, Narayanasamy Arunai Nambi Raj
Abstract: Kidney or gall-bladder stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine or bile juice found inside the kidneys or urethras and gall bladder, with varying size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball, the occurrence whose in the human is well known, although its pathogenesis is not well understood. According to literature, a number of biomaterials, such as collagen, blood vessel walls, DNA, RNA etc., are found to possess the property of electrets which is an electric analogue of a permanent magnet having the capability to retain quasipermanently, an induced polarization. In order to understand about the occurrence and the physical properties of stone formation in the human tissues, the study of its electret behaviour and conductivity becomes imperative which implies the fact of indulging in its growth inhibition, if their deposition is identified using scans. Thus, in this paper, in order to understand the mechanism of growth of these nephrolithiasis, we enumerated the electrical behaviour of the stone, by using the XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis after their collection from different patient in and around the region and subsequently the dielectric constant of the stone was interpreted.
Authors: D. Swathi, Priyanka Singh, R. Rekha Madhuri Bai, Gundepudi Subashini, Rajni Kumari, Narayanasamy Arunai Nambi Raj, R. Vidya
Abstract: Kidney stone disease is a common health problem in industrialized nations. A better understanding of the physio-chemical principles underlying the formation of kidney stone has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative procedure for the chemical analysis of renal stone which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves two qualitative tests i.e. biochemical tests and X-ray diffraction. Through these tests we are determining the elements present in the renal stone and we can suggests people to avoid those food stuffs in which the elements present similar to kidney stone so that recurrence in future will be avoided.

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