Effect of Steel Making Slag on Castability of Medium Carbon Re-Sulfur Steel Grades


Article Preview

Abstract. One of the everlasting problems existing in alloy steel plant is clogging of Submerged Entry Nozzle(SEN) due to accumulation of De-oxidized/Re-oxidized products while casting Medium Carbon Re-Sulfur Steel grades(forging grades).After complete De-sulphurization and De-oxidation, liquid steel have been subjected to Ca-treatment which promote deep De-oxidation and deep De-sulphurization in addition to inclusion morphology control. Finally liquid steel have been injected with sulfur cored wire for chemistry requirement of 0.02-0.035%. All these conditions encourage thermodynamically favorable conditions for formation of various combination of oxide and sulphide inclusions which are highly detrimental to castability in continuous casting of integrated steel mill. This becomes one of the major process interruptions which directly terminate production capacity day by day and also affects the quality of cast product. As well said before “Best Slag Maker Is Best Steel Maker”, we mainly focused on secondary steel making slag at different stages, and found the relation of castability with respect to slag behavior. We arrived at optimal slag nature for better castability in continuous casting of steel.



Edited by:

B.S.S. Daniel and G.P. Chaudhari




K. Ashok et al., "Effect of Steel Making Slag on Castability of Medium Carbon Re-Sulfur Steel Grades", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 585, pp. 364-368, 2012

Online since:

November 2012




[1] Fruehans R J. Unique Functions of Slag in Steel Making. VII International conference on Molten Slag Fluxes and Salts. The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, (2004).

[2] Singh S N, Mechanism of Alumina Buildup in Tundish Nozzles During Continuous Casting of Aluminium Killed Steels. Metallurgical Transactions, Vol 5, Oct, 1974-2165.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02643930

[3] Teresa Lis. Modification of Oxygen and Sulphur Inclusions in Steel by calcium Treatment, METALLURGIA 48 (2009) 2, PP 95-98.

[4] Rackers KG and Thomas B G. clogging in Continuous Casting Nozzles. 78th Steel Making Conference Proceedings, Nashville, TN April, 1995, iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, Vol-78, 1995, PP 723-734.

[5] Cicutti et al. Control of Micro inclusions in Ca treated Al Killed Steel, Iron and Steel Making 2002 Vol. 29 No. 6 PP 437-444.

[6] Dekkars R et al. Non Metallic Inclusion in Aluminium Killed Steels, Iron and steel Making. 2002, Vol-29, No 26, PP 437-444.

[7] Rampersadh R, Pistoriuss P C. Re-Oxidation and Castability of Aluminium Killed Steels, The Journal of the south African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Vol 106, April 2006, PP 265-267.

[8] Hideaki Suito and Ryo Inoue. Thermodynamics on control of Inclusion omposition in ultra clean steels, ISIJ International, Vol. 36 (1996), No-5, Pp 528-536.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.36.528

[9] Minna Lind. Mechanism and Kinetics of transformation of alumina Inclusions in Steel by Ca Treatment, Helsinki University of technology Publications in Material Science and Engineering, ESPOO 2006, TKK-MT-180.

[10] Sune Jansson. A study on Molten Steel /Slag/Refractory Reactions during ladle Steel Refining, Licentiate Thesis, Division of Applied Process Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (2005).

[11] Lifeng Zhang and S. Taniguchi. Fundamentals of Inclusion Removal from Liquid Steel by Bubble Flotation, International Materials Reviews 2000, Vol 45, No 2, PP 59-82.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/095066000101528313

[12] Synthetic Slag for Steel Making, Shieldalloy Metallurgical Corporation, (1995).

[13] Data collected from steel plant JSW STEEL LTD, Salem Works.