Effect of Injection Parameters on Immersion Liquid during Wafer Scanning
Double patterning improves the development of immersion lithography, but it brings new challenges including the higher scanning velocity of wafer. In this paper, considering two typical injection types, the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on immersion liquid during wafer scanning. By analyzing the velocity distribution of immersion flow and normal stress on the lens, the proper parameters of injection are proposed under the typical conditions, and the appropriate parameters which lead to effective renovation with low lens distortion are also given.
Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen
H. Chen and Q. Liu, "Effect of Injection Parameters on Immersion Liquid during Wafer Scanning", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 591-593, pp. 351-355, 2012