Abstract: Tube Hydroforming is a well accepted production technology in automotive industry
while sheet hydroforming is used in selected cases for prototyping and low volume production. Research in advanced methods (warm sheet and tube hydroforming, double blank sheet hydroforming, combination of hydroforming and mechanical sizing, use of multi-point and elastic blank holders) is expanding the capabilities of hydroforming technologies to produce parts from Al and Mg alloys, as well as Ultra High Strength Steels. In the development of advanced hydroforming methods, experience based knowledge is not readily available. Thus, robust process simulation is required, along with adequate material modeling and identification of friction coefficients as input to process simulation. This paper gives an overview of advanced hydroforming methods, including examples of novel machine and tooling designs. The use of reliable process simulation is illustrated with examples that demonstrate the significance of material and friction date for making accurate
predictions. Advanced simulation methods for warm forming and for programming multiple-point blank holder are also discussed. This review illustrates that hydroforming continues to make advances and has the potential to make many contributions to production technology in the near future.
Abstract: Nowadays feasibility studies using finite element analysis are performed in very early
design phases of sheet metal parts forming. Further, simulation technology is used to optimize the first forming stage. Because of the ever intensifying international competition and the increased use of high-strength steels and aluminum alloys, the absorption of springback deviations is a great challenge, especially in the automotive industry. The application of numerical computation to predict springback deviations and to create compensated die designs in early design phases of sheet metal
parts forming becomes essential. At DaimlerChrysler the numerically based compensation of springback deviations during the die development process of complex car parts is achieved. However, developments to optimize and compensate dies automatically or to predict form deviations on assemblies are still necessary.
Abstract: During recent years, optical measuring technologies in sheet metal forming and tooling have been used more and more in the industry. Main applications are the digitizing of metal sheet parts and tools, forming analysis of metal sheets as well as the determination of material properties. Good interfaces to conventional CAD/CAM and numerical simulation systems made such optical measuring systems a part of complex process chains. These process chains mainly focus on optimizing the development of products and production processes and on improving the product
quality. Using optical systems considerably decreases the development time for products and production while improving the quality.
Abstract: The use of computers in manufacturing has enabled the development of several new
sheet metal forming processes. This paper describes modifications that have been made to traditional forming methods such as conventional spinning and shear forming, where deformation is localized. Recent advances have enabled this localized deformation to be accurately controlled and studied. Current developments have been focused on forming asymmetric parts using CNC technology, without the need for costly dies. Asymmetric Incremental Forming has the potential to revolutionize sheet metal forming, making it accessible to all levels of manufacturing.
Abstract: There is some remarkable progress in laser beam welding of sheet metal which is driven by the advent of improved laser systems and process technologies. Here, potentials for reducing distortion and avoiding hot cracking are highlighted, and examples of current developments are given in the field of thin and thick sheet metal welding including spot welding of difficult-to-weld materials and material combinations.
Abstract: The accuracy of material models can have a large impact on the overall accuracy of material forming simulations in general and sheet forming simulations in particular. For large strain plastic deformations, the material model usually consists of a yield function and a hardening relation, optionally including the influence of temperature and strain rate. In large-scale simulations it is favourable to keep the model as simple as possible. The ‘allowable’ error in a material model should be in balance with other errors, like the discretisation error and errors in contact and friction modelling.
The required accuracy depends on the application and the goal of the analysis. In many occasions, strain rate and temperature dependency can be ignored, but for warm forming this is clearly not the case. Furthermore, numerical simulation of the onset of necking requires a much better material model than needed for the calculation of the global deformation field before necking.
Abstract: Light weight construction is a construction philosophy which aims at maximum weight
reduction. Reasons for light weight construction can be very diverse. One main cause can be to improve fuel efficiency. This can be achieved by use of load optimised sheet thicknesses. Another reason can be the increasing demands on crash performances by optimisation of local properties. This paper presents two production processes of flexibly rolled blanks, one with longitudinal and the other one with latitudinal thickness transitions. Both of them have been developed at the
Institute of Metal Forming (IBF) and yet found their way into series production. The potential of these processes is already proved by a large range of products, especially in automotive industries. Some special deep drawing tests with flexibly rolled blanks have been conducted and their results are presented. Also process simulation has been carried out at the IBF and will be explained. One possibility with regard to optimise these products is shortly introduced. Completing this paper an outlook is given.
Abstract: Today’s sheet metal forming is affected by several trends concerning sheet metal
material. The sheet metal forming industry is thereby influenced by the reinforced demand of drawn components made of high strength steels, aluminum or magnesium because of economical and ecological reasons. Besides shifted mechanical properties, changing the sheet metal material influences the entire tribological system and therefore raises questions concerning the suitability of the tool material as well as the lubrication.
Abstract: The focus of forming high-strength steel at elevated temperature is to improve its
forming properties like elongation and to reduce the power requirements during the forming process in opposite to cold forming. Because of the undefined and large spring-back effects parts made by cold forming are not able to achieve the demanded dimensional accuracy, which is necessary for laser welding operations in car body assembly. The reduction of the spring-back behavior is another advantage of the temperature controlled forming technology. On the other side the forming at
elevated temperatures requires increased costs for forming tools and tempering equipment. For a fundamental evaluation of this technology, expenditures for the complete process chain have to be considered.
Abstract: Sophisticated materials like high strength steel or even multi phase steel as well as
aluminum require more efforts within the manufacturing process than conventional steel sheets as they have been used in the body in white recently. The manufacturing process itself as well as engineering of the parts, material of the forming tools as well as cold and warm joining technologies must be regarded separately. For forming tools coated steel inserts or sometimes even cooling is
essential in terms of high-volume car series production. In mixed material solutions using steel in combination with aluminum, the common used resistance spot welding process does not work any more. To maintain high process stability of cold joining technologies combined with adhesive bonding a new process must have been developed. Other items for weight and cost savings are tailored rolled blanks or sophisticated joining technologies. Regarding the manufacturing costs, a cost effective combination of the mentioned high-sophisticated alloys with conventional material should be achieved. Developing a design concept due to crash, stiffness and driving performance, basic requirements have to be considered. This aims to check the high potential of cost intensive materials wherever high functional benefit is necessary under commercial aspects.