Abstract: The manufacturing technique of driving is one of the oldest procedures for sheet metal forming and has been used in the ancient world for the production of copper pots and vases. This technique is still utilized for niche applications but today has lost its importance. The process of driving is almost completely carried out manually and thus is only appropriate for very small quantities or in case of failure of other production processes. Since individualization of products is strongly gaining in significance, forming processes have to be found, which are independent from expensive tools and equipment. Using driving as the process of choice to form sheet metal, the grade of automation of the forming process has to be increased. Numerically controlled driving, i.e. automated positioning and handling of the work piece during the production process, will need a conclusive simulation base. This paper provides results of the analysis of sheet steel angles formed by the driving sub groups of shrinking and stretching.
Abstract: Incremental forming is an innovative and flexible sheet metal forming technology for
small batch production and prototyping, which does not require any dedicated die or punch to form a complex shape. This paper investigates the process of single point incremental forming of an aluminum cone with a 50-degree wall angle both experimentally and numerically. Finite element models are established to simulate the process. The output of the simulation is given in terms of final geometry, the thickness distribution of the product, the strain history and distribution during
the deformation as well as the reaction forces. Comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data is made.
Abstract: Incremental forming is an innovative and highly flexible sheet metal forming technology for small batch production and prototyping that does not require any adapted dies or punches to form a complex shape. The purpose of this article is to perform FEM simulations of the forming of a cone with a 50-degree wall angle by incremental forming and to investigate the influence of some crucial computational parameters on the simulation. The influence of several parameters will be discussed: the FEM code used (Abaqus or Lagamine, a code developed at the University of Liège), the mesh size, the potential simplification due to the symmetry of the part and the friction coefficient. The output is given in terms of final geometry (which depends on the springback), strain history and distribution during the deformation, as well as reaction forces. It will be shown that the deformation is localized around the tool and that the deformations constantly remain close to a plane strain state for this geometry. Moreover, the tool reaction clearly depends on the way the contact is taken into account.
Abstract: The measurement and evaluation of sheet metal surface characteristics is of increasing importance, due to the significant functional impact on finishing processes like forming and varnishing. For a comprehensive and useful description of textured topographies including nonstatistical characteristics, a simple profile evaluation based on 2D roughness parameters is no longer sufficient. The introduction of area-imaging white light confocal microscopy offers, in contrast to tactile profiling methods of comparable accuracy, the clear advantage of contact-free and extremely fast 3D data capture. The capabilities and benefits of this technology in interaction with
sophisticated 3D area analysis methods are demonstrated by measurement examples of sheet metal and roller surfaces. A newly-developed mobile confocal measurement system for direct roller measurements is introduced.
Abstract: The production of automotive body parts and panels is a very complex process, starting with the raw materials and ending in the paint shop. Due to the fact that aluminium sheet metal has to be lubricated before forming, all of the following processes have to be considered. Lubricants, such as oils, dry-film lubricants or recently introduced hotmelts have to protect the material’s surface, reduce friction whilst drawing the panels and should not compromise further treatments .
Different types of lubricants show different characteristics. This difference is especially noticeable when comparing liquid and dry-film lubricants. As dry-film lubricants do not run off the blanks’ surface and are distributed homogeneously, they show different tribological properties compared to conventional liquid lubricants. The effect on friction of aluminium sheet metal is shown through several basic experiments [2, 3]. In addition, the paper shows the effect of further operations within the production chain. The advantages and disadvantages not only for drawing, but also for assembly lines and the painting process are described in this paper. Assembly issues are carried out on stability testings of riveted and clinched assemblies. These trials show how the assembly process is affected by different
proceedings. The fact that every car body has to be completely free of grease before painting, signifies the necessity to get lubrication off the car body’s surface before painting. The interactions between lubrication and paint shop are shown on typical process parameters. Most typical characteristics considering bonding and riveting were tested out on a hood assembly of the current BMW 7-series. In addition to that, experiences made in the press shop at BMW’s Dingolfing plant were figured out and carried over to a long-term strategy of pre-lubrication of
aluminium sheet metal. This includes adhesive compatibility as well as the above mentioned assembly process.
Abstract: In this paper a measuring system that allows an automatic detection of waviness and form errors in sheet metal parts is introduced. The system is based on a stripe projection method using a high resolution line scan camera. Particular focus is put on achieving a short measuring time and a high resolution in depth, aiming at a reliable automatic recognition of dents and waviness of 10 µm on large curved surfaces of approximately 1 m width. On smoothly curved surfaces a spatial frequency analysis is used to detect dents. By combining this spatial frequency analysis with a CAD
model, more complex parts can be inspected, too. Using an objective 100% inspection of all parts, a quality improvement can be achieved by controlling the forming process.
Abstract: Tribological aspects strongly influence the deep drawing behaviour of sheet metal, being responsible for both the punch force and the material draw-in from the flange. Recent developments in lubrication technology have shown that dry film lubricants can be a good alternative to conventional fluid lubricants in case of aluminium sheets. Their main advantages are the homogeneous distribution on the blank surface, the good adhesion to the surface and the possibility of applying it already in the rolling mill. In order to introduce this technology in series production also for steel sheets more knowledge concerning the influence of the lubricant amount on the
drawing forces is needed. A further important aspect to be considered is the surface quality of the steel grades and its interactions with the dry lubricant. In this paper four steel grades with different mechanical and/or surface properties are considered. After a microscopical and topographical investigation of the surface the materials were tested in a cup drawing test after applying two different amounts of the dry film lubricant Drylube E1. Further process parameters which were varied are the blank holder force FN and the drawing ration b. In this way, information about the
influence of the lubricant amount on both the drawing force and on the maximum blank holder force FZ could be obtained for three different values of b. The experimental results have shown how a strong decrease of the lubricant amount (from 1.0 down to 0.5 g/m2) causes, at a given drawing ratio, only a small increase in the maximum drawing force as well as a small increase in the maximum blank holder force.
Abstract: ‘Three-dimensional surface profilometry’ when used for analysis and product
specification reports roughness parameters that provide an average surface description over a relatively large area. Many commercial sheet steels are produced with special textured surfaces for tribological benefits or appearance benefits. These surfaces, as well as others, may demonstrate high levels of roughness anisotropy that is not quantifiable by simple three dimensional surface parameters. This anisotropy can play an important role in the surface appearance of the finished
product and in the tribological behaviour during forming. The current work presents a method for quantifying surface-roughness features as a function of angular orientation with respect to rolling direction. The measurement methodology was applied to several model surfaces and one industrially produced electron-beam textured-surface (EBT). This methodology extracts multiple surface-height profiles of the same angular orientation from a single surface and calculates an
average roughness parameter for the orientation angle based on the multiple profiles. Particularly interesting results were the large number of profiles necessary to obtain repeatable values for the roughness variation with respect to direction and the strong influence of surface feature size on the repeatability of said results. These results indicate that care must be taken when using a single extracted profile to represent a ‘three-dimensional’ surface.
Abstract: In the paper the thermal characterization of friction stir welding processes (FSW) of aluminium alloys is presented. In particular both embedded thermocouples and a thermography analysis were utilized in order to acquire the temperature vs. time curves in point of interests of the joints and the temperature distributions, respectively. Such kind of results are very important in order to investigate the material conditions during the FSW process.
Abstract: In the paper the results of a wide experimental activity on friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloys are reported. In particular the butt joints of two different materials, namely AA1050-O and AA6082-T6 were considered. Grains dimensions and precipitates density were investigated both in the parent materials and after the welding processes. Furthermore post-welding heat treatments effects on the joint strength were studied.