Engineering Materials and Application

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Authors: Yu Jie Ren, Fu De Zha, Chao Wei Wang, Qi Bin Chen
Abstract: Zn(II)meso-tetra(α,β,α,β-o-pivalamidophenyl)-porphyrin was synthesized as a sensing material. It indicated an excellent film performance and significant optical response ability, which can be used for gas detection, such as: NO2, SO2 and NH3.This material was characterized by IR, NMR, and AES, and its Langmuir-Blodgett films properties were also studied by means of UV-Vis-spectroscopy. The results showed that the zinc porphyrin’s UV spectrum and LB films properties occurred a great change compared with protoporphyrin, and it also had a good film forming capability and stability.
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Authors: Wei Tian, Xiao Hua Zhang
Abstract: Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) was investigated as a potential way to increase the fretting fatigue resistance of Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy at elevated temperature. Three coating systems, hard TiN film, Al film and Cu/Ni multilayer films have been applied on the base material. Coefficients of friction and fretting fatigue lives of the specimens with and without film were compared. The results indicate that the IBAD technique can prepare all films with high bonding strength and excellent lubricating properties. The fretting fatigue life of the Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy with the TiN film was improved by a factor of 2.4 as compared to the uncoated substrate at elevated temperature because of the excellent wear and fatigue resistance and good toughness of the film. The IBAD Al film significantly improved the fretting fatigue resistance of the Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy at elevated temperature for good lubricating property. The fretting fatigue resistance of the Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was improved by all the Cu/Ni multilayer films. However, the fretting fatigue resistance did not increase monotonically with the modulation period of the films.
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Authors: Sirirat Thothong, Amnat Jarerat, Klana Rong Sriroth, Rattana Tantatherdtam
Abstract: In order to confirm the feasibility of porous rice starch granules and PBAT blends as biodegradable composites, their degradability were carried out. Enzymatic degradability evaluation showed that α-amylase degradation of starch increased as the starch content in the blend increased. Burial test of the blends for 1-4 months was carried out and the rate of degradation of the PBAT/porous starch blend was confirmed to be slower than those of PBAT/native rice starch blend. Observation of the film blends structure by scanning electron microscope revealed that the starch was dispersed in a PBAT matrix. Furthermore, changes in the film surface after enzyme treatments were observed. The results obtained from the degradability of the porous starch granules and PBAT blends showed that this bio-composite was relatively slow, regarding as controllable degradation material.
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Authors: Constantin E. Chalioris
Abstract: This study presents an analytical approach to evaluate an optimum content of deformed steel fibres in shear-dominated fibrous concrete beams in order strength and ductility requirements to be satisfied. The proposed methodology is based on the calculations of the flexural and shear capacities and to the concept that a pure flexural response should be achieved. The goal of this method is to evaluate the minimum required value of the fibre factor, F, which expresses the effect of the volume fraction and the geometrical characteristics of the used steel fibres. The calculation of F is achieved using a cubic formula derived from the described procedure. Fibres can be used either as the only shear reinforcement or in combination with stirrups. Test results from 47 beams of the literature are used to verify and to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results showed a very good agreement. Design charts have also been plotted by the implementation of this methodology as an analysis tool.
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Authors: Xiao Liu, Hui Zhu, Hu Jie Lu, Ying Li, Jian Ning Zhang, Yan Jun Zhang
Abstract: Widely used engineered nanomaterials (NMs) display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential cytotoxicity. There is a continuing need for real-time imaging techniques capable of studying the interactions between NMs and living alveolar epithelial cells under physiological conditions. A new developed noninvasive HPICM is designed for continuous high-resolution topographic imaging of living cells, which makes it an ideal tool to study NMs cytotoxicity in living alveolar epithelia by performing reliable repetitive scanning. In this review, we concisely introduced the operation principle of HPICM and its applications to real-time investigation of engineered NMs cytotoxicity in living alveolar epithelia. Published results demonstrate that non-contact HPICM combined with patch-clamp has the potential to become a powerful microscopy for real-time studies of NM-cell interactions under physiological conditions.
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Authors: Xiao Yan Wang, Qiong Wu, Hai Yan Li, Hai Dong Ju, Hai Yang, Jin Long Luo, Li Ying Pu, Shan Du, Hai Wang
Abstract: Thin-film solar cells (TFSC) have made great progress during the past decade and consequently are now attracting extensive academic and commercial interest because of their potential advantages: lightweight, flexible, low cost, and high-throughput production. The strengths and weaknesses of different thin-film solar cells: amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells, multi-compound thin-film solar cells, organic thin-film solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells are discussed. Finally, prospects for the development of thin film solar cell technology in Yunnan province are discussed.
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Authors: E.F. Kustov, V.M. Novotortsev, I.L. Eremenko, E.O. Goncharov
Abstract: This paper introduces the common principals of theoretical matrix method for the direct determination of magnetic properties of transition metal ions, which is based on calculation of the full matrix of all the interactions. In this work this method was used to calculating, study and analysis the magnitude of magnetic moment of Co2+ ion in crystal fields with different symmetry.
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Authors: K. Lagha-Menouer, M.S. Belkaid, M. Pasquinelli
Abstract: Tin oxide SnO2 thin films are deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition APCVD technique. The electrical properties of the deposited films and the influence of the temperature ranging from room temperature to 500°C are analyzed by Hall measurement technique. The negative value of the hall constant indicates that the obtained tin oxide thin films are an N type semiconductor. The value of the mobility and the carrier concentration are 21 cm²/ V. sec and 1,50. 1020 cm-3 respectively. These films present an optical reflectance less than 20%.The change of the surface morphology due to the heat treatment is characterized by the scanning electronic microscopy SEM and the transmission electronic microscopy TEM. The films have a polycrystalline aspect. A post annealing at 500°C improves their morphology.
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Authors: Nicola Pellegrini
Abstract: The technological application of nickel–titanium shape memory alloys (SMA) requires a constitutive model that can be easily implemented into numerical methods. For these reasons, macroscopic constitutive models have gained ground in SMA designs. A new model is developed that encompasses all the characteristics of these materials over the whole range of transformation temperatures, several macro-mechanical properties and evolution of martensite fraction. A finite element scheme is proposed to solve a semi-inverse dynamic problem. For a prescribed temperature range and external stress-boundary conditions, the outcomes are the possibility to identify the required electrical current density.
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