Equal Channel Angular Pressing of Al Alloy AA2219
Severe plastic deformation processes (SPD) are gaining importance as advanced materials processing techniques and hold immense potential in obtaining ultra fine-grained high strength materials. Among the SPD techniques, Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has its own merits to produce materials with ultra fine grains in bulk with better mechanical properties. The material deforms with high level of plastic strain inside the channel resulting in grain refinement of the output material with improvement in mechanical properties. A very viable die configuration was conceptualized and die was made with 1200 channel angle. Processing of 25 mm dia. of Al alloy AA2219 at room temperature was successfully carried out and grain refinement was observed. The mechanism of grain refinement has been studied using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that low energy dislocation structure (LEDS) forms concurrently with sub-grain structure due to dislocation rearrangements, which provide stability to the evolving sub-grain structure. Dislocation mobility is hindered by the presence of precipitates and / or intermetallic dispersoids present in the matrix and results in presence of dislocations in grain interiors. The pile up of dislocations at intermetallic dispersoids was confirmed from the dark field TEM micrographs. Present paper describes the experimental procedure and followed to attain severe plastic deformation through ECAP. Increase in hardness as well as refinement in the grain size after 5-passes have been discussed in light of extensive optical and TEM. The mechanisms of grain refinement to achieve nano-grained structure and strengthening accrued from the grain refinement through ECAP has been discussed.
S. Ray, S.K. Nath, A. Kumar, R.C. Agarwala, V. Agarwala, G.P. Chaudhari, B.S.S. Daniel
V. Anil Kumar et al., "Equal Channel Angular Pressing of Al Alloy AA2219", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 67, pp. 53-58, 2009