Abstract: In this work, different mortars with different degrees of damage brought about by the action of the freeze-thawing cycles are evaluated. Analysis of its state is carried out by different usual evaluation methods. Results obtained through these methods are compared with the electrical impedance spectroscopy. Moreover, this non-destructive technique is employed to evaluate the state of mortars and the amount of internal damage.
Abstract: A new system for measuring magnetic viscosity in bulk hard magnetic materials base on a pulsed field method is presented. After the magnetizing field pulse, the stray field of the sample, which is proportional to the magnetic moment, is measured with a compensated set of two Hall probes. The set of Hall probes is driven with an AC voltage source and the Hall voltage is detected using a lock-in amplifier. By this method the system is able to measure the time dependence of the magnetization (viscosity). The magnetic viscosity coefficient (S) is obtained through a linear fitting of the magnetization decay versus ln t. Two typical Nd-Fe-B samples were measured and good agreement with the results from the traditional viscosity experiment was obtained.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of an investigation aimed at understanding microstructure formation of Al-Fe-Mn-Si intermetallics during pressure-assisted reactive sintering of elemental powders. The proportion of elements was selected such that the composition of the product was 55 wt % Al, 17 wt % Si, 14 wt % Mn, and 14 wt % Fe. Experiments were conducted at temperatures between 600 and 800°C, using compaction stresses of up to 20 MPa. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns of fully processed samples showed that the powders were transformed into a mixture of Al9FeMnSi and Al9FeMn2Si phases. However, as temperature and pressure were increased, the Al9FeMnSi phase was transformed into the Al9FeMn2Si phase. Differential Thermal Analysis, as well as microstructural characterization by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, showed that these intermetallics do not form directly from the powder mixtures. Rather, they are the result of metallurgical reactions between a molten Al-Si solution and various intermediate phases formed during reactive sintering.
Abstract: Crack disappearance by high-temperature oxidation was studied in alumina (Al2O3) composites toughened by Ni nanoparticles. This process is performed in air at temperature ranging from 1000 to 1300°C for 1 to 48 h. The results showed that crack disappearance depends on both annealing temperature and time. Complete crack disappearance in this composite was confirmed at lower temperatures for long oxidation period, 1100oC for 48 h, and higher temperature for shorter time, 1300oC for 1 h in air. The crack disappearance mechanism was explained on the basis of the formation of NiAl2O4 spinel on sample surfaces produced by the oxidation reaction during the heat treatment.
Abstract: Thin films of CdSe were electrodeposited on tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates at various bath temperatures. The deposited films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the deposited films are found to be hexagonal structure with preferential orientation along (002) plane. The microstructural parameters such as crystallite size, R.M.S strain, dislocation density, stacking fault probability were calculated using x-ray line profile analysis technique. The variation of microstructural parameters with bath temperature and film thickness were studied and discussed.
Abstract: Co-Ni alloy thin films were electrodeposited from sulfate baths at various solution pH values (1.5-5.5) ±0.1. The deposition kinetics of the films was studied using linear sweep voltametry (LSV). XRD studies exhibited fcc and hcp phases for Co-Ni alloys deposited at low and high pH ranges, respectively. EDAX studies showed that the cobalt content increased and nickel content decreased with increase in solution pH. The surface morphology of Co-Ni films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the Co-Ni alloys synthesized at low pH exhibited soft magnetic properties and the films deposited at higher values revealed hard magnetic properties and the results are discussed.
Abstract: Iron selenide (FeSe) thin films were electrodeposited onto tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates using aqueous solution mixture containing FeSO4 and SeO2 at various bath temperatures and deposition potentials. The deposited films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis by x-rays (EDX) for their structural, morphological and compositional properties. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the deposited films are found to be tetragonal structure with preferential orientation along (100) plane. The x-ray line profile analysis technique by the method of variance has been used to evaluate the microstructural parameters such as, crystallite size, R.M.S strain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability. The influence of bath temperature and deposition potential on the microstructual parameters was investigated. The SEM observation reveals uniform surface morphology for films deposited at higher bath temperatures. The experimental observations are discussed in detail.
Abstract: Cadmium iron selenide (Cd-Fe-Se) thin films were deposited onto tin oxide (SnO2) coated conducting glass substrates from an aqueous electrolytic bath containing CdSO4, FeSO4 and SeO2 by potentiostatic electrodeposition. The deposition potentials of Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Selenium (Se) and Cadmium-Iron-Selenide (Cd-Fe-Se) were determined from linear cathodic polarization curves. The deposited films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive analysis by x-rays (EDX) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns shows that the deposited films are found to be hexagonal structure with preferential orientation along (100) plane. The effect of FeSO4 concentration on structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films are studied and discussed in detail.
Abstract: Bulk compounds of CdTe, Cd0.25Sn0.75Te and Cd0.25Te0.75Sn have been prepared by direct reaction of their high purity (99.9999%) elemental constituents employing rotating furnace. The hot wall system is optimized for the deposition of prepared alloys by using molecular flow studies with Monte Carlo simulation technique. Thin films have been deposited on well cleaned glass substrates using the prepared alloys by the optimized hot wall vacuum evaporation system. The compositions of the prepared bulk and thin films have been identified using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The compositions are found to be same for both the bulk and thin films as the prepared alloys. The structural properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that all the films are crystalline in nature and the peaks in the XRD graph of CdTe correspond to cubic zinc blende structure and that of Cd0.25Sn0.75Te and Cd0.25Te0.75Sn compounds to rock salt structure. The lattice parameters and grain sizes of all the films have been evaluated. The surface morphology of the thin films is studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis shows that surface of the films are smooth and crystalline in nature. The optical transmittance spectra of thin films were recorded using spectrophotometer in the range of wavelength from 190 nm to 2500 nm. All the films exhibit direct optical band gap and their values are 1.45eV (CdTe), 0.9eV (Cd0.25Sn0.75Te) and 1.1eV (Cd0.25Te0.75Sn). Thicknesses of the thin films have been determined by multiple beam interferometric technique.