Vibrations in polishing machinery may affect the manual or automatic controls and reduce the efficiency of the operations to be carried out. In this article, an experimental and numerical analysis on the dynamic characteristic of a gearbox casing in polishing machinery have been carried out. The numerical investigation was achieved with NASTRAN based on a 3D FEM model and the experimental modal analysis for the determination of the natural frequencies and the associated eigenmodes of the gearbox casing with LMS structural vibration test system was performed. The fundamental modal parameters including the first 10-order natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes were estimated and identified. Analytical and experimental results have been compared and discussed. Agreement between measurements and calculations is satisfactory and the results can be used as reliable reference for improving the dynamic behavior of the gearbox casing.