Nano-Photonic & Electronic Structures Pattern and Fabrication
In this paper, techniques developed in the fabrication of nano-structures such as photonic gratings and vertical tube structures are presented for fabrication development that is applicable in the field of MEMS/NEMS technology – particularly for the optical integrated circuits  and sensor devices . In such applications, not only is the resolution enhancements important, it is also often imperative that Critical Dimensions Uniformity (CDU) be kept as low as possible - since device performance often times scales directly with structural dimensions and its accuracy . In this regard, techniques such as phase shift masking, off-axis illumination, optical proximity corrections, and also multiple patterning and resist ashing etc needs to be employed. This, not only increases the number and complexity of processing steps; it (at the same time) implicates other specifications such as illumination apertures, mask designs, optical proximity simulations, tool overlay tolerances etc. Coupled with additional non-CMOS requirements of atypical pattern shapes and densities, such as rings, horse-shoe shapes, sharp edges etc, a comprehensive study of the flexibilities involved with micro-lithography needs to be carried out for novel design prototyping. Here, the above described are illustrated, using examples of (i) a photonic gratings structure patterned with sharp edges, and (ii) a vertical-tube switch device structure, which are presented and discussed for their fabrication techniques and measurement results.
Selin Teo, A. Q. Liu, H. Li and B. Tarik
S. H.G. Teo et al., "Nano-Photonic & Electronic Structures Pattern and Fabrication", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 74, pp. 171-174, 2009