Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 by Non-Aqueous Sol-Gel in Acidic Condition for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Nanocrystalline TiO2 has been synthesized through non-aqueous sol-gel using acetic acid (HOAc) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. Titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as precursor was prepared by reaction between TiCl4 with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in concentration of 0.3 M. The sol-gel process employed at around 60°C using tert-butanol as solvent and HOAc was added as ligand to stabilize the reaction. Controlled hydrolysis and condensation reactions were achieved through in-taking of water molecules released from the esterification reaction of HOAc with tert-butanol. In this paper, the influence of acidic catalyst was described at the volume ratio of HOAc:HCl are 0:2 ; 1:1 and 2:0. The crystallinity and crystal phase of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and nanocrystalline TiO2 with anatase phase was resulted. The morphology of the TiO2 powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Pore size and the BET surface area were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Nanocrystalline TiO2 produced was applied for photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cell. The optical properties of the TiO2 photoelectrodes were measured using by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The performance of the cell was measured using a solar simulator with light at an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 generated by a xenon lamp. The best efficiency of 0.5% was achieved for active area of 0.48 cm2.
Akhmad Herman Yuwono
L. Muliani and B. Sunendar, "Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 by Non-Aqueous Sol-Gel in Acidic Condition for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 789, pp. 171-175, 2013