For the first time, nano-scale rods of NaLaxYb9-x(SiO4)6O2 (x=1,3,5,7,9) crystals (NLS) activated with Er3+ have been synthesized through a mild hydrothermal conditions with subsequent calcination. The as-obtained products were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that the compound has an apatite structure and crystallizes in the hexagonal system, space group P63/m. The excitation spectrum and emission spectrum were also emplyed to investigate the optical properties of the nano-rods. The Er3+ doped NLS exhibit green/red up-conversion luminescence under excitation with a diode laser at 980 nm.