Preparation and Characterization of Hollow TiOX Nano-Spheres for Electrophoretic Displays
Hollow TiOX nano-spheres have been successfully prepared using hollow core-shell latex particles as template, which involves the deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of hollow core-shell latex particles and subsequent removal of the latex particles by calcinations in air or ammonia gas. The formation route of hollow core-shell polymer particles is presented as follows: Firstly, poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) seed emulsions are prepared as the 'core'. Subsequently, the outer shell poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) (PS-co-MMA) particles wrap on the surface of the core, the microspheres with core-shell have been prepared. Finally, Ti(OBu)4 is used as precursor for the preparation of hollow TiOX nanospheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) images of seed emulsions show they have the uniform size of about 470 nm. TEM of hollow core-shell polymers particles show they have an average diameter of about 500 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of TiO2 sample calcined presents that the strong absorptions is coordinated with the standard chart of rutile TiO2. TEM of TiO2 and TiO show hollow spheres well-dispersed with the diameter range of 300-400 nm and 350-400 nm, respectively. The density (in the atmospheric pressure, 20 °C) of TiO2 and TiO hollow spheres was 2.49 and 2.37 g∙mL-1, respectively. The Zeta potentials were 6.20 mV and 20.39 mV, respectively. Uniform hollow spheres show low density and good electrophoretic displays. The electrophoretic mobilities of white TiO2 and black TiO hollow spheres in tetrachloroethylene show they are suitable for electronic paper as background and display particles, respectively. It is anticipated that this method would present a potential toward the road of large-scale industrial production of TiOx hollow spheres.
Yansheng Yin and Xin Wang
T. F. Tan et al., "Preparation and Characterization of Hollow TiOX Nano-Spheres for Electrophoretic Displays", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 79-82, pp. 385-388, 2009