Evolution of Surface Morphology in Ni(γ)/Ni3Al(γ´) Two-Phase Foil during Electrochemical Etching
Evolution of surface morphology in Ni(γ)/Ni3Al(γ´) two-phase foil of binary Ni-18 at.%Al was examined during the electrochemically selective etching in the electrolyte of distilled water including 1 wt.% (NH4)2SO4 and 1 wt.% citric acid. In the early stage (0.5 h), only the γ matrix was etched and the outmost γ´ particles were protected by a preexisting surface product. As the γ matrix was etched more, the side surfaces of the outmost γ´ particles and the γ´ particles that were located inside were exposed in the electrolyte. They were dissolved, and had a high density of fine dimples. However, the dissolution rate of the γ´ particles was slower than that of the γ matrix and thus the selective etching was retained in this stage. Finally, at 5h, more γ´ particles were exposed and the flat and smooth surfaces of the outmost γ´ particles were completely eliminated by the dissolution on the side surfaces. From these observations plus the saturation of the current density observed in the electrochemical test, we concluded that the change in the surface morphology was finished at this stage. Thus, the surface became more rough and irregular, which resulted from the original two-phase microstructure and the fine dimple structure by transpassivation.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
H. Y. Lee et al., "Evolution of Surface Morphology in Ni(γ)/Ni3Al(γ´) Two-Phase Foil during Electrochemical Etching", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 89-91, pp. 331-336, 2010