Surface Characterization of Magnesium Anodized in a 10M KOH Electrolyte

Abstract:

Article Preview

Magnesium (Mg) is a promising implant material for orthopedic applications due to its biodegradability and desirable mechanical properties. However, in order for Mg to have widespread clinical applications, engineering solutions that address the rapid degradation in physiological environments and promote bone-forming activity are needed. The objective of this study was to develop an anodization process using a toxicant-free electrolyte to modulate nanoscale surface features and surface chemistry on Mg. Anodic polarization and potentiostatic anodization tests were used to evaluate the effect of applied potential on surface morphology of Mg in a 10 M KOH electrolyte. Nucleation of oxides as a function of anodization duration was also investigated in order to optimize the synthesis process. The alkaline electrolyte used for anodization of Mg offers an alternative to commercial processes that use hazardous elements. The anodized samples were annealed to investigate the effect of thermal treatments on surface morphology and chemical composition. The nanostructure and chemical composition of the anodized and annealed Mg substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results showed that the nanostructures and chemical composition of anodically-generated oxide layers on Mg are specific to each oxidation process in a 10 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, results indicated that anodization durations of two hours generated surface oxide layers with homogeneous topography on the Mg substrates atapplied potentials of 0.5 V, 1.5 V and 2 V.. This study showed a promising approach for creating nanoscale surface features on Mg for improved bioactivity and degradation property.

Info:

Periodical:

Edited by:

B. Mishra, M. Ionescu and T. Chandra

Pages:

513-518

Citation:

C. Miller et al., "Surface Characterization of Magnesium Anodized in a 10M KOH Electrolyte", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 922, pp. 513-518, 2014

Online since:

May 2014

Export:

Price:

$41.00

* - Corresponding Author

[1] Uhthoff H, Poitras P, Backman D. Internal plate fixation of fractures: short history and recent developments. J Orthop Sci. 2006; 11: 118-26.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00776-005-0984-7

[2] Shen C, Jiang SD, Jiang LS, Dai LY. Bioabsorbable versus metallic interference screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthroscopy. 2010; 26: 705-13.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2009.12.011

[3] Beevers DJ. Metal vs bioabsorbable interference screws: initial fixation. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2003; 217: 59-75.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1243/095441103762597746

[4] Smith CA, Tennent TD, Pearson SE, Beach WR. Fracture of Bilok interference screws on insertion during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 2003; 19: E115-17.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2003.09.012

[5] Staiger M, Pietak A, Huagmai J, Dias G. Magnesium and its alloys as orthopedic biomaterials: A review. Biomaterials. 2006; 27: 1728–34.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.10.003

[6] Hort N, Huang Y, Fechner D, Stormer M, Blawert C, Witte F, et al. Magnesium alloys as implant materials-principles of property design for Mg-RE alloys. Acta Biomater. 2010; 6: 1714-25.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.09.010

[7] Witte F. The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review. Acta Biomater. 2010; 6: 1680-92.

[8] Liu H. Biodegradable Metals and Responsive Biosensors for Musculoskeletal Applications. Nanotechnology Enabled In Situ Sensors for Monitoring Health: Springer New York; 2011. pp.115-37.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7291-0_6

[9] Webster T, Siegel R, Bizios R. Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics. 1999; 20: 1221–7.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9612(99)00020-4

[10] Webster TJ, Ergun C, Doremus RH, Siegel RW, Bizios R. Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on nanophase ceramics. Biomaterials. 2000; 21: 1803-10.

[11] Webster T, Ergun C, Doremus R, Siegel R, Bizios R. Enhanced osteoclast-like cell functions on nanophase ceramics. 2001; 22: 1327–33.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9612(00)00285-4

[12] Tsuchiya H, Macak JM, Müller L, Kunze J, Müller F, Greil P, et al. Hydroxyapatite growth on anodic TiO2 nanotubes. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2006; 77A: 534-41.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.30677

[13] Macdonald DD. On the Formation of Voids in Anodic Oxide Films on Aluminum. J Electrochem Soc. 1993; 140: L27-L30.

[14] Lei T, Ouyang C, Tang W, Li L-F, Zhou L-S. Enhanced corrosion protection of MgO coatings on magnesium alloy deposited by an anodic electrodeposition process. Corrosion Science. 2010; 52: 3504–8.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2010.06.028

[15] Koji Murakami MHaTK. Anodization of Magnesium Alloys Using Phosphate Solution. Magnesium Alloys - Corrosion and Surface Treatments: InTech; (2011).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/13463

[16] Bauer S, Kleber S, Schmuki P. TiO2 nanotubes: Tailoring the geometry in H3PO4/HF electrolytes. Electrochemistry Communications. 2006; 8: 1321–5.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2006.05.030

[17] Cai Z, Lu D, Li W, W, Zhou H. Study on anodic oxidation of magnesium in 6M KOH solution by alternative current impedance. Internation Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2009; 34: 467-72.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.09.087

[18] Li Z, Gu X, Lou S, Zheng Y. The development of binary Mg-Ca alloys for use as biodegradable materials within bone. Biomaterials. 2008; 29: 1329-44.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.12.021

[19] Yoshida T, Tanaka T, Yoshia H, Funabiki, Takuzo, Yoshida S. Study of Dehydration of Magnesium Hydroxide. J Phys Chem. 1995; 99: 10890-6.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/j100027a033

[20] Kang S, Kim J-Y, Kim H, Sung Y-E. Formation and mechanistic study of self-ordered TiO2 nanotubes on Ti substrate. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2008; 14: 52-9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2007.06.004