A Three-dimensional Finite Element Method for Surface Effects
Due to the relatively high surface-to-volume ratio, the surface effect can be significant for nanoscale materials. A numerical method, which combines surface energy and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis, is proposed to simulate the elastic and plastic deformation of materials and structures at nanoscale. To demonstrate the method is valid and efficient, the free relaxation of single crystalline Cu nanowires is investigated and the numerical results are compared to the atomic simulation results.
Zhengyi Jiang and Chunliang Zhang
X. L. Chen et al., "A Three-dimensional Finite Element Method for Surface Effects", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 97-101, pp. 1265-1268, 2010