Preliminary study on the preparation and performance of vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) reinforced cement composites was carried out. VGCF were prepared from de-oiled asphalt (DOA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Results demonstrated that compressive strength and electrical conductivity of VGCF reinforced cement could be significantly enhanced with very low fiber content. The resistivity decreased and compressive strength increased of cement-matrix composites with weight fraction of VGCF increasing from 0 to 0.6% fiber in the paste. The fiber content of 0.4% by mass of cement was recommended, which yielded the resistivity of 1.49×103Ωcm. That was two orders of magnitude lower than that for the same paste without VGCF (3.25×105Ωcm). Furthermore, the compressive strength increased by 28.8% as the VGCF content increases from 0 to 0.4% by mass of cement.