Abstract: Pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, which is ubiquitously present in all living organisms, is one of the major metabolic pathways associated with glucose metabolism. The most important functions of this pathway includes the generation of reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis, and production of ribose sugars for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, and other macromolecules required by all living cells. Under normal conditions of growth, PP pathway is important for cell cycle progression, myelin formation, and the maintenance of the structure and function of brain, liver, cortex and other organs. Under diseased conditions, such as in cases of many metabolic, neurological or malignant diseases, pathological mechanisms augment due to defects in the PP pathway genes. Adoption of alternative metabolic pathways by cells that are metabolically abnormal, or malignant cells that are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs often plays important roles in disease progression and severity. Accordingly, the PP pathway has been suggested to play critical roles in protecting cancer or abnormal cells by providing reduced environment, to protect cells from oxidative damage and generating structural components for nucleic acids biosynthesis. Novel drugs that targets one or more components of the PP pathway could potentially serve to overcome challenges associated with currently available therapeutic options for many metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. However, careful designing of drugs is critical that takes into the accounts of cell’s broader genomic, proteomic and metabolic contexts under consideration, in order to avoid undesirable side-effects. In this review, we discuss the role of PP pathway under normal and abnormal physiological conditions and the potential of the PP pathway as a target for new drug development to treat metabolic and non-metabolic diseases.
Abstract: Gene therapy is a widespread and promising treatment of many diseases resulting from genetic disorders, infections and cancer. The feasibility of the gene therapy is mainly depends on the development of appropriate method and suitable vectors. For an efficient gene delivery, it is very important to use a carrier that is easy to produce, stable, non-oncogenic and non-immunogenic. Currently most of the vectors actually suffer from many problems. Therefore, the ideal gene therapy delivery system should be developed that can be easily used for highly efficient delivery and able to maintain long-term gene expression, and can be applicable to basic research as well as clinical settings. This article provides a brief over view on the concept and aim of gene delivery, the different gene delivery systems and use of different materials as a carrier in the area of gene therapy.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major reasons for mortality worldwide and numerous scientific studies are going on to find plausible solutions to overcome and manage diabetes and its related infirmities. Traditional medicines use medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents and despite being a disturbing weed to farming land Mimosa pudica Linn. has a high traditional usage for various purposes including anti-diabetic complications. The objective of this article is to accumulate and organise literatures based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of M. pudica in the management of diabetes mellitus. M. pudica is a creeping perennial shrub which is a common weed widely distributed in Southeast Asia specially in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, China, Philippine etc. This plant has various species of which M. pudica is a well recognised plant of medicinal origin which has been traditionally used as folk medicine in India, Bangladesh and Philippine, Chinese, herbal and siddha medicines. It has wound healing, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-infections, anti-worm, anti-proliferative, anti-snake venom, anti-depressant and anxiolytic etc. activities. The objective of this article is to provide up-to-date information on the traditional and scientific studies based on this plant on the frontier of diabetes mellitus. The methodology followed was to methodically collect, organise and chart the recent advances in the use of M. pudica in diabetes and its related complications like vascular complications, diabetic wound, hyperlipidemia etc. Various scientific studies and traditional literatures clearly support the use of M. pudica as an anti-diabetic agent among other uses. So far, the anti-diabetic compounds have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future anti-diabetic implications.
Abstract: Quinoline derivatives are the most promising class of active pharmaceutical agents compared with other heterocyclic compounds. Biological activity profile of quinoline can easily be controlled by introducing some active pharmacophore to the core ring. This chapter deals with the synthesis of quinoline derivatives and its biological activity. The enhancement of biological activity by incorporation of active functional group and effect of these functional groups were explained briefly. Main focus is given to the synthesis of different substituted quinoline derivatives for biological application with respect to the position on the quinoline core ring and modification of quinoline ring.
Abstract: Heart development is a precisely harmonized process of cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integrated morphogenetic interactions, and therefore it is extremely vulnerable to developmental defects that cause congenital heart diseases (CHD). One of the major causes of CHD has been shown to be the mutations in key cardiac channel-forming proteins namely, connexins (Cxs). Cxs are tetra-spanning transmembrane proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels on cellular membrane. They allow passage of small molecules or ions between adjacent cells or between cells and the extracellular environment. Studies have revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of Cxs mainly, Cx31.9, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 is essentially involved in early developmental events, morphogenetic transformations, maturation, and functional significance of heart. Our lab and others have shown that mutations in gap junction proteins could result in impaired trafficking, misfolding, and improper channel function of these proteins. It has also been shown that differential expressions of cardiac Cxs are associated with pathophysiological conditions of heart. Collectively, these conditions are coupled with abrogated or modified functionality of relevant channels in cardiac tissue, which are associated with many pathological situations, including CHD. Since CHD are a major cause of morbidity, therefore recovery of such kind of heart defects associated with Cxs is extremely important but remains highly challenging. In this review, we will summarize the role of Cxs in development, morphogenesis, maturation, normal function, and pathology of heart, and propose possible bioengineering techniques to recover defects in cardiac tissues related to the modified functions of Cxs.
Abstract: The success of orthopedic and dental implants largely depends on their biocompatibility with the surrounding body environment and the biocompatibility depends on the physical, chemical, mechanical, topographical and biological properties of the implant materials chosen. Since the last few decades, titanium and its alloys have been among the most widely used ones due to their superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties; however, pure titanium needs to be pre and/or post treated chemically or physically to maintain appropriate textures and surface roughness. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated polymeric powder coatings consisting of smooth and micro-nanoscale roughness were developed that exhibited biocompatibility towards Human Embryonic Palatial Mesenchymal (HEPM) Cells. In addition, an experimental set up was designed and executed to evaluate the adhesion/ bond strength of the coating and to measure the load bearing capacity that the coatings can withstand before being detached from the substrate. Coating’s topographical features were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the coating materials.
Abstract: Nanomaterial based electrochemical method gain tremendous interest for the detection of biomolecules due to high sensitivity, selectivity, and low fabrication cost. High surface to volume ratio, excellent electrocatalytic properties of the nanomaterials plays important role for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules. For electrochemical biosensors, proper control of chemical, electrochemical and physical properties, as well as their functionalization and surface immobilization significantly influences the overall performance. This chapter gives an overview of the importance of the development of nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors; particularly direct electrooxidation-or electroreduction-based biosensors, catalysis-based biosensors, and label-based affinity biosensors. In addition, fabrication methods including modification of electrode surface with nanomaterials, tailoring their physico-chemical properties, and functionalization with chemicals or biomolecules are also highlighted.