A Critical Assessment of Porosity Coarsening during Solid State Sintering
Understanding porosity coarsening is essential for controlling the properties of sintered materials and for producing high density or near net shape parts. As porosity is interconnected up to relative densities in excess of 80% or even 95%, measuring, monitoring and modelling of the growth of individual pores is relevant only at very high relative densities. This paper tries to convey two essentials of porosity coarsening: (i) characterization of the geometry of the pore space in the lower range of densities is possible by using stereological parameters, and (ii) coarsening of porosity takes place during all sintering stages by various mechanisms. Porosity coarsening has been reported in metals, ceramics and glasses. Recent and classical approaches, experimental results with two dimensional model arrangements as well as computer simulations of formation and opening of particle contacts are discussed. The effect of porosity dimensions on the properties of sintered materials and measures for preventing and provoking porosity coarsening are briefly addressed.
H. E. Exner and G. Petzow, "A Critical Assessment of Porosity Coarsening during Solid State Sintering", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 45, pp. 539-548, 2006