To solve the shortage of the donor cornea in Japan, we are developing a poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel based keratoprosthesis. Minimum requirements for a keratoprosthesis include light transparency, non-toxicity, and nutrition and fluid permeability. Earlier clinical trials had frequently failed because corneal epithelial down growth occurred between the host cornea and the materials, and the materials were finally rejected from the host cornea. The major cause of this rejection is the weak adhesion between the host cornea and the prosthesis. In order to achieve the firm fixation of the artificial cornea to host cornea, composites of collagen-immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with hydroxyapatite(PVA-HAp nano composites) were synthesized. The preparation method, characterization, and the results of corneal cell adhesion and proliferation on the composite materials were studied. The PVA-HAp nano composites were successfully synthesized. Chick embryonic keratocyto-like cells were well attached and proliferated on the PVA-HAp composites. This material showed potential for keratoprosthesis.