Smart Textiles

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Authors: Laura Jiménez, A.M. Rocha, I. Aranberri, José A. Covas, A.P. Catarino
Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop conductive yarns to be used as electrical wiring in e-textiles with the typical mechanical properties of a textile yarn. Present work deals with the study of conductive polymer composites filaments of PP (polypropylene) with CB (carbon black), carbon black of high conductivity (CBHC) and CF (carbon fibers) .The novelty of this work resides in creating oriented filaments using traditional fiber processing techniques together with a specially designed drafting machine. In the authors’ opinion, the composite conductivity could be improved with the orientation of the (nano)carbon-based fillers by melt drawing after extrusion in order to facilitate the flow channels creation.
Authors: Carla Hertleer, Lieva Van Langenhove, Hendrik Rogier
Abstract: Our future garments will not only protect us from the environment or make us look fashionable; they will allow monitoring through an incorporated sensor network. The off-body communication of the sensor data to a nearby base station is therefore preferably operated by a fully integratable and flexible antenna. This paper reports on the applicability of textile materials and textile processes in the design of antennas to be integrated into our every day clothing or even professional clothing.
Authors: Benno Schmied, Jürgen Günther, Christopher Klatt, Horst Kober, Eugène Raemaekers
Abstract: As a consequence of the ambient intelligent vision where the citizen carries along more and more electronic systems near the body wearable electronics is needed. Typical applications are intelligent textiles and clothes, personnel healthcare or fitness monitoring. The electronic systems for these applications have to be stretchable with soft touch nature in order not to hamper the comfort of the user and to be ideally almost non-noticeable to him. They should be reliably withstanding all mechanical and chemical requirements of clothes, in which they are integrated. In the EU- project "STELLA" IST - 028260 the consortium has developed a platform technology of enabling interconnection, packaging and assembling technologies. For example a new generation of stretchable substrates based on non woven with stretchable conductor pattern for large area application has been developed. In order to realize low-cost high volume stretchable electronics printed circuit methods have been modified and applied so far.
Authors: Tilak Dias, W. Hurley, R. Monaragala, R. Wijeyesiriwardana
Authors: Torsten Linz, René Vieroth, Christian Dils, Mathias Koch, Tanja Braun, Karl Friedrich Becker, Christine Kallmayer, Soon Min Hong
Abstract: This document explains different approaches to integrating electronics in textiles. It discusses reliability standards and tests for electronics in textiles. Encapsulation technologies are evaluated concerning their applicability in textile integrated electronics. Furthermore a specific assembly with embroidered wiring and embroidered interconnections has been developed and improved. Two different encapsulation technologies have been developed for this assembly. Standardized tests have been carried out to assess the reliability of the assembly and its encapsulations. Finally the achievements are critically discussed.
Authors: Eftalea Carpus, Angela Dorogan, Emilia Visileanu, Mircea Ignat, Gelu Onose, Dimitrie Nanu, Ioana Carpus, Maria Buzdugan, Marcela Radu
Abstract: There is a critical need of integrating the basic electronics technologies, sensors, computers and communications into textiles, so that these, until now passive, to be able to be changed into interactive, intelligent information infrastructure in order to facilitate the personalized mobile information processing to the end user. A field with a special application potential of the intelligent textiles is the medical field. The paper will present a knitted textile product having an attached resistive sensor meant for monitoring the foetus heart rate during the intrauterine development period.
Authors: Rita Paradiso, Lionel Bourdon, Giannicola Loriga
Abstract: Textile integration of smart sensor systems is the key technology for the success of future e-garments oriented to emergency operators. Ubiquitous recording and transmission of human and environmental data will allow combining comfort and protection leveraging with the existing smart textile, microelectronics and telecommunication technologies. The challenge offered by emergency situation is mainly in the difficulty to acquire data in a very aggressive environment, during hard physical activity; conditions that will increase the risks of signals artefacts, as well as the presence of positive and negative false events. Security is addressed through the implementation of systems combining body sensing platform, for health alertness and environment sensing platform for context awareness; the full system has also to guarantee protective functionality. State of art textile technology allows the monitoring of heart and respiratory rate, humidity rate, activity rate, GSR and EMG, while core and external temperature, posture via accelerometers, absolute position via GPS are easily monitored through standard sensors. The body sensing platform requires a direct contact with the operator skin leading to the implementation of a sensing inner garment, at the same time environment platform are integrated in a protective jacket that is also hosting the alarm systems and the electronic unit for signal processing and transmission hardware. This paper is reporting about a study done with a pioneer e-textile system named Wealthy on healthy subjects during extreme conditions. Wealthy platform is currently evolving in a new one, specially designed for emergency scenarios, developed in the frame of the project Proetex, a preliminary description of the new system is presented; the new system that is under first testing phase, has been designed to be used without interfering with operator activities.
Authors: C.J. Hurren, R.T. Liu, Xin Liu, X.G. Wang
Abstract: This paper investigated the use of titanium dioxide sol-gel coatings to photo-catalyse red wine stains on wool fabrics. Coatings were produced by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium butoxide (Ti(OC4H9)4) on the surface of wool fabrics after pad application. Coatings were partially converted to the anatase form of titanium dioxide by prolonged immersion in boiling water. The coating presence was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy, UVspectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. Coated samples were measured for photo-catalytic activity by degrading red wine stains from the surface of the coated fabric. The level of photocatalysis was determined for each of the coating systems after 168 hours. Red wine stains were photo-catalysed and level of staining was reduced from the UV exposed surface of the coated wool fabric.
Authors: Damian Pliszka, S. Sundarrajan, A. Jaworek, A. Krupa, M. Lackowski, Seeram Ramakrishna
Abstract: We present a novel method of using Particle Image Velocimetry in electrospraying process studies. Electrospraying of metal oxides nanoparticles and covering nonwoven nanofiber mat creates composite material for potentially wide applications. Precise control of the electrospinning process gives possibility for better control of nanoparticles deposition and thereby enhancing its relative properties.
Authors: Harriet Meinander
Abstract: The haptic properties of textiles are of crucial importance in most application areas and particularly for skin contact garments. Extensive research work has therefore been done both in defining the mechanical textile properties, which influence the haptic sensations, in measuring these textile properties, in defining procedures for subjective evaluation of the haptics of textiles, and in simulation of the properties in a virtual environment. In the development of new smart or intelligent textiles it is particularly important to consider the haptic properties. The introduction of non-textile elements (e.g. sensors, transmitters) in the garments or other textile products easily cause impaired haptic or other comfort properties, which might not be accepted by the markets and the end-users. A primary application area for smart garments is in the health care, where tight fitting underwear garments for the monitoring of body functions (heart rate, ECG, temperature) have been developed. Good haptic properties are particularly important for unhealthy or elderly persons with very sensitive skin.

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