Smart Textiles

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Authors: Paola Gallo Stampino, Giovanni Dotelli, Luca Omati, Paolo Fracas, D. Brivio, P. Grassini
Abstract: A Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) is a sandwiched conductive and porous material interposed between the catalyst layer and the bipolar plates in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) . This electrode substrate is a multi-functional material with several properties. All these requirements are best met by carbon fibres based materials, woven carbon or paper. In this work, the attention is focused on a new family of GDL which are produced by an Italian company, SAATIgroup. In particular a new class of carbon cloth with different surface treatments have been considered: a sample without surface treatment, a samples with a plasma treatments and a sample coated with PTFE. All these GDLs were coated with a microporous layer (MPL) to optimize the water management and the ultimate electrochemical performance of a PEM. The morphological and electrical characterization of all the samples was carried out by means of different techniques. Moreover, as the aim of this work was to study the effects of gas and water transportation on cell performance by applying MPLs, fuel cell tests have been conducted to relate their characteristics to the polarization curves.
Authors: François Narbonneau, D. Kinet, Bernard Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, Jens Witt, Katerina Krebber
Abstract: The potential impact of optical fibre sensors embedded into medical textiles for the continuous monitoring of the patient during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is presented. In that way, we report on several pure optical sensing technologies for pulse oximetry and respiratory movements monitoring. The technique for pulse oximetry measurement is known as NIRS (Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy) in a reflectance mode. In parallel, we tested two different optical sensor based fabric designs breathing activity detection – a macro bending sensor and a fibre Bragg grating sensor consisting in respiratory frequency measurement by intensity variation detection and optical spectral analysis.
Authors: Richard J.N. Helmer, Michael A. Mestrovic, Damian Farrow, Stuart Lucas, Wayne Spratford
Abstract: Innovation in textiles and clothing has embodied various combinations of new and existing materials to meet conventional needs of comfort and fashion. Interactive and intelligent textiles are emerging as many new textile materials are being used to form sensors in garments to intimately interact with the human form. Interactive textiles typically contain sensors located within a garment to detect physiological functions that are wirelessly connected to digital infrastructure and application specific software. These devices can be realised in conventional garments and have scope for application in diverse fields including entertainment, education, sport, military and medicine. Position and Motion Sensing devices will be discussed for each application, in terms of the value proposition, performance requirements, regulations, and existing technology. A case study of an entertainment device that uses limb motion to achieve an imaginary instrument, the Wearable Instrument Shirt (WIS) will be discussed in this context. The WIS combines a wearable sensor interface with software to map gestures and audio data files to form an easy-to-use gesture driven instrument that allows real-time interactive musical performances without any need for significant instrument or computer skills.
Authors: Jane McCann
Abstract: We are at the beginning of a new industrial revolution with the merging of textiles and electronics. Current markets for clothing and electronics have been separate. Medical devices have been developed for ‘ill people’ with little aesthetic appeal and wearable technology has not been readily accepted by some intended markets due to badly designed user-interfaces. Little has been done to address the design requirements of older wearers with regard to aspects of human physiology in terms of sizing, fit, predominant posture, thermal regulation, moisture management, protection and the psychological ‘feel good factor’. Emerging technologies may be confusing to traditional clothing designers, while electronics and medical experts are not normally conversant with textile technology. A shared 'language' and vision is needed to easily communicate between these sectors and older wearers. The application of smart textiles in a clothing ‘layering system’ may enhance the quality of life of the active ageing. To be acceptable, clothing must be comfortable, stylish and function reliably in relation to the technical, aesthetic and cultural userneeds. This paper will focus on the needs of the 65-75 year old age group who have experienced the influence of design throughout their lives. A design methodology, driven by meaningful end-user research, will be introduced that addresses the potential for a comfortable and stylish clothing system to promote the wellness and autonomy of this growing community.
Authors: M.A.F. Carvalho, F.B.N. Ferreira, H. Carvalho, José Gerardo Rocha, L.B. Martins, Jorge A. Santos
Abstract: Project aims to develop a system that allows to provide to the People with Special Needs (PSN) a relief to the level of the sensitive perception of discomfort, assuring greater independence, welfare, quality of life, prevention of illnesses/wounds, through the development of textile and polymers applications (cushions, mattresses and mattresses overlays) with functions of monitoring and control of pressure in the body's areas in contact with the support surfaces. In this group of PSN will be enclosed the people with serious motor limitations conditioning their mobility/deambulation, such as bed rest people, patients under effect of sedatives or anaesthesia during long surgeries (intra and post operative), patients and users in general of wheelchairs. These people have, for the most part of the cases, a commitment of sensitivity in the body's areas in contact with the support surfaces, or its motor capacity does not allow them to move regularly of position autonomously, as it would do a healthy person unconsciously. Then, insufficient sanguineous irrigation occurs as result of pressure exceeding too long the tissue capillary pressure depriving tissues of oxygen and essential nutrients, owing to ischemia and hypoxia, which then causes the pressure ulcers (PU) development.
Authors: Shou Xiang Jiang, Xiao Ming Tao, C.W.M. Yuen, C.W. Kan, L. Zhang, P.S.R. Choi
Abstract: Silver-plated textiles have exhibited their specific features not only on mechanical performance but also on functional properties. In this study, silver plating technique was applied on cotton fabric to improve its functional properties, especially the anti-bacterial and anti-UV properties. Silver plating was conducted in this research with the aid of oxygen and argon low-temperature plasma (LTP) pre-treatment on the cotton fabric to manipulate the film of the coating. The silver-plated cotton fabric was characterized in terms of its functional properties. The micro-roughness formed on the cotton fabric after the LTP pre-treatment facilitated the silver particles deposition. As a result, the anti-bacterial and anti-UV properties of the silver-plated cotton fabric and the water repellent ability of the cotton fabric were improved after the silver-plating process.

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