Highly porous hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) was prepared through hydrothermal (HT) transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bones (Seppia Officinalis L. Adriatic Sea) in the temperature range from 140°C to 220°C for 20 minutes to 48 hours. Mechanism of hydrothermal transformation of bones was investigated by DTA/TG analyzer coupled online with FTIR spectrometric gas cell equipment (DTA-TG-EGA-FTIR analysis), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DTA-TG-EGA-FTIR analysis have shown the release of CO2 at about 400°C, 680°C and 990°C. The first release could be attributed to organics not completely removed from the heat treated bones, and the second release to decomposition of unconverted aragonite, whereas, the third one could be attributed to CO3 2– groups incorporated in the structure of HA. The interconnecting porous morphology of the starting material (aragonite) was maintained during the HT treatment. The formation of dandelion-like HA spheres with diameter from 3 to 8 μm were observed, which further transformed into nanoplates and nanorods with an average diameter of about 200-300 nm and an average length of about 8-10 μm.