Manufacturing Metamaterials Using Synchrotron Lithography
The function of metamaterials relies on their resonant response to electromagnetic waves in characteristic spectral bands. To make metamaterials homogeneous, the size of the basic resonant element should be less than 10% of the wavelength. For the THz range up to the visible, structure details of 50 nm to 30 μm are required as are high aspect ratios, tall heights, and large areas. For such specifications, lithography, in particular, synchrotron radiation deep X-ray lithography, is the method of choice. X-ray masks are made via primary pattern generation by means of electron or laser writing. Several different X-ray masks and accurate mask-substrate alignment are necessary for architectures requiring multi-level lithography. Lithography is commonly followed by electroplating of metallic replica. The process can also yield mould inserts for cost-effective manufacture by plastic moulding. We made metamaterials based on rod-split-rings, split-cylinders, S-string bi-layer chips, and S-string meta-foils. Left-handed resonance bands range from 2.4 to 216 THz. Latest is the all-metal self-supported flexible meta-foil with pass-bands of 45% up to 70% transmission at 3.4 to 4.5 THz depending on geometrical parameters.
Pietro VINCENZINI, David S. GINLEY, Giovanni BRUNO, Attilio RIGAMONTI and Nikolay ZHELUDEV
H. O. Moser et al., "Manufacturing Metamaterials Using Synchrotron Lithography", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 75, pp. 230-239, 2010