The diffusion of Mg ions (figure 5) into single-crystal fibers was studied by using MgF2 as the diffusion source. By means of electron probe microanalysis, the activation energy for Mg-ion in-diffusion was estimated to be 104kJ/mol. It was also shown, by X-ray diffraction analysis, that the Mg-diffused layer suffered marked lattice distortion and that LiNb3O8 appeared beyond a certain diffusion distance. The appearance of LiNb3O8 was related to Li-ion out-diffusion from the bulk of LiNbO3 and to the large amount of F from MgF2, due to Mg-ion in-diffusion.
Magnesium-Ion Indiffusion to Lithium Niobate Single-Crystal Fiber with MgF2 as Diffusion Source. W.Que, Y.Zhou, Y.Lam, Y.Chan, C.Kam, L.Zhang, X.Yao: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics - 1, 1999, 38[9A], 5137-42
Diffusivity of Mg in LiNbO3