Auger Electron Spectroscopical Investigation of Interfacial Segregation in the Cu-Bi System
A systematic investigation of the segregation of Bi at both free surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu, under identical conditions, is reported. The problem of Bi evaporation upon Bi segregation at free surfaces was overcome using a special method for sample preparation. Cu bicrystals containing deliberately made internal cavities at the grain boundary were doped with Bi, annealed at temperatures between 1073 and 1223 K, and broken along the grain boundary in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber for Auger electron spectroscopy. For the first time, the equilibrium surface segregation of Bi in Cu has been measured. The segregation at the free surface was found to be stronger than the segregation at the grain boundary.
M. Danielewski, R. Filipek, R. Kozubski, W. Kucza, P. Zieba, Z. Zurek
G. A. López and E. J. Mittemeijer, "Auger Electron Spectroscopical Investigation of Interfacial Segregation in the Cu-Bi System", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 237-240, pp. 1141-1146, 2005