Diffusion of I Group Metals in Porous Silicon
Porous silicon (PS) layers with porosity of 60% on n-type (111) Si substrates were prepared by anodic etching under the white illumination. Metal (Cu, Ag or Au)/PS/Si and metal (Cu, Ag or Au)/Si structures have been fabricated by evaporation of thin metal film onto the PS or Si surface, respectively. The diffusion annealing of structures was carried out in air at 100-250oC. Examination of Cu, Ag and Au concentration distribution in PS layer and monocrystalline Si substrate was performed by successive removal of thin layers from sample and measuring the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) intensity of CuKα1, AgKα1 and AuLβ1 peak. The effective diffusion coefficients for investigated metals along PS surfaces decrease in series Cu, Ag and Au and temperature dependences are described as D(Cu)=7.8 exp(-0.62eV/kT), D(Ag)=4.2x10 exp(-0.72eV/kT) and D(Au)=1.2x102 exp(-0.81eV/kT). Diffusion coefficients of Cu, Ag and Au along PS surfaces are larger (by a factor of 104-105) than those into monocrystalline Si. The diffusion mechanism of Cu, Ag and Au along PS surfaces is discussed and data on influence of diffusion of these metals on humidity-sensitive characteristics of metal(Cu, Ag or Au)/PS Schottky type gas sensors is also presented. Diffusion of metals of I group in PS is accompanied by increase of humidity-sensitivity of metal/PS structures by a factor of 1.2-1.4.
Andreas Öchsner and José Grácio
T.D. Dzhafarov et al., "Diffusion of I Group Metals in Porous Silicon", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 258-260, pp. 107-111, 2006