Drying Kinetics of Grape Stalk
Grape stalk may be considered as an agro-food byproduct of the wine industry, being considered as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. Actually, before the extraction of antioxidants a previous stage of drying would be necessary. Stalks obtained from a red wine processing (Vitis vinifera var. Bobal) were characterized as a cylinder net with different size ending in spheres. The average diameters and mass fractions of the individual parts of the stalk were measured: spheres (4.4±0.7 mm and 0.352 mass fraction), large cylinders (3.3±0.6 mm and 0.204 mass fraction), intermediate cylinders (2.1±0.4 mm and 0.294 mass fraction) and small cylinders (1.1±0.3 mm and 0.150 mass fraction). Drying kinetics of each one of the parts of the stalk were carried out at 40 °C and 2 m/s using an initial mass load of 30 g. Furthermore, drying experiments of the whole stalk were conducted at the same experimental conditions. Different diffusion models were considered to predict the drying kinetics for each one of the individual parts of the stalk according to the geometry considered. A diffusion model for the whole stalk was developed by adding the individual diffusion models weighed by the corresponding mass fractions. The diffusion models considered fitted properly the drying kinetics of the individual parts considered on the stalk. The figures of the effective moisture diffusivity identified for the different kinds of cylinders were close (1.07-1.78 10-11 m2/s), however, the spheres showed a different behavior characterized by a significantly higher figure of effective moisture diffusivity (3.92 10-8 m2/s). Finally, the usefulness of the model considered to describe the drying kinetics of the whole stalks was shown.
Andreas Öchsner and José Grácio
J.V. García-Pérez et al., "Drying Kinetics of Grape Stalk", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 258-260, pp. 225-230, 2006