Defects and Diffusion in Metals, 2003

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Authors: M. Abdel-Rahman, N.A. Kamel, Yahia A. Lotfy, Emad A. Badawi, M.A. Abdel-Rahman
Abstract: Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (PADPS) is a nondestructive technique used in materials science. Electrical measurements are one of the oldest techniques also used in materials science. This paper aims to discuss the availability of using both PADPS and electrical measurements as diagnostic techniques to detect defects in a set of plastically deformed 5454 wrought aluminum alloys. The results of the positron annihilation measurements and the electrical measurements were analyzed in terms of the two-state trapping model. This model can be used to investigate both the defect and dislocation densities of the samples under investigation. Results obtained by both nuclear and electrical techniques have been reported.
Authors: M.A. Abdel-Rahman, M.S. Abdallah, N.M. Hassan, Emad A. Badawi
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime is one of the most important nuclear techniques, used to study the isochronal and isothermal annealing in one of the most important engineering aluminum alloys which is 2024 alloy. Samples of 25 % deformation have been used for these studies. Two recovery stages during the isochronal annealing [1] were observed which were ascribed to the recovery of point defects and dislocations introduced by the deformation. The isothermal annealing measurements were performed at 583, 603, 623 and 643 K from which the activation energy obtained was 1.24 ± 0.08 eV.
Authors: M. Abdel-Rahman, Yahia A. Lotfy, M.A. Abdel-Rahman, Emad A. Badawi
Abstract: Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful and versatile tool for the study of the microscopic structure of materials. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation Technique (DBPAT) is the fastest technique used among positron annihilation techniques. The dose effect in Al-6.5at. % Cu alloy was investigated by means of DBPAT. An abrupt change in both the S and W line-shape parameter values occurred at 70 kGy of irradiation. The S- and W-Parameters of the trapped positrons at 70 kGy of γ−irradiation dose are about 48 % and 14 % respectively. The S- versus W-parameter reveals a linear relationship indicating the presence of only one type of defect. The S- and W-parameters have been used in the determination of the positron trapping rate and the grain size of the AlCu6.5 alloy.
Authors: Amitava Ghorai
Abstract: We show the calculation of the monovacancy formation energy ( v FH E1 ) for three different group-I monovalent fcc metals (Cu, Ag and Au) and two group-IV tetravalent fcc metals (Pb and Th) use a pseudopotential approach. Ashcroft's empty core model potential (AECMP) and nine different exchange and correlation functions (ECF) are used. The variation of v FH E1 with the parameter c r of AECMP for different ECF shows variations with the metals, and c r is observed to be greater than Bohr radius.
Authors: Ramachandran Saravanan, K.S. Syed Ali, M. Prema Rani, R. Saravanan
Abstract: The alkali halide Na1-xAgxCl, with two different compositions (x = 0.03 and 0.10), was studied with regard to the Ag impurities in terms of the bonding and electron density distribution. X-ray single crystal data sets have been used for the purpose. The present analysis focused on the electron density distribution and hence the interaction between the atoms is clearly revealed by maximum entropy method (MEM) and multipole analyses. The bonding in these systems has been studied using two-dimensional MEM electron density maps on the (100) and (110) planes and onedimensional electron density profiles along the [100], [110] and [111] directions. The mid-bond electron densities between atoms in these systems are found to be 0.175 e/Å3 and 0.183 e/Å3, respectively, for Na0.97Ag0.03Cl and Na0.90Ag0.10Cl. Multipole analysis of the structure has been performed for these two systems, with respect to the expansion/contraction of the ion involved.
Authors: Ji Zhong Zhang, Wei Qiang Wang, Na Li
Abstract: Various deposits of CdO grains were observed on the surface of N 100 silicon crystals heated at 580 °C and 620 °C for 1 hour in an evaporation-deposition device, respectively. The ball-shaped crystals, and regular-prism-shaped crystals were found on top of bush-like long crystals. Two types of CdO self-organization aggregates were also observed, that is, regular circular-shaped dense aggregate and long-chainshaped aggregate. The self-organization aggregates were composed of numerous submicron CdO grains. The relationship between self-organization aggregates and surface defects of virgin N 100 silicon crystal was investigated. The results showed that the CdO self-organization aggregates were related to surface defects of the virgin N 100 silicon crystal, and a defect induced aggregation (DIA) model is suggested.
Authors: Guang Duo Lu, Shao Yi Wu, Hua Ming Zhang, Li Hua Wei
Abstract: The local structure and the spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors gi (i =x, y and z) and the hyperfine structure constants Ai for Co2+ in orthorhombic CaTiO3 are theoretically investigated from diagonalization of 6 × 6 energy matrix within the 4T1 ground state for a 3d7 ion in orthorhombic symmetry. In the calculations, the contributions from the admixtures of various J states (J=1/2, 3/2, 5/2), the ligand orbitals and spin-orbit coupling and the fourth-order orthorhombic field parameter, which were usually neglected in the previous works, are taken into account. The crystal-field parameters are determined from the superposition model in consideration of the suitable lattice distortion due to the charge and size mismatching substitution of Ti4+ by Co2+. Based on the studies, the bond lengths R1 and R2 in the xy plane are estimated to suffer the relative alternation R ≈ 5.4%, yielding more significant orthorhombic distortion in the impurity center as compared with that for the host Ti4+ site in pure crystal. The calculation results based on the above local lattice distortion show reasonable agreement with the observed values. The various contributions to the spin Hamiltonian parameters are discussed. Present studies may theoretically verify that the impurity Co2+ occupies the 6-fold coordinated Ti4+ site rather than the 12-fold coordinated Ca2+ site, associated with the enhanced orthorhombic distortion due to the mismatching substitution.

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