Cu Ti Formation in Nb Ti/Cu Superconducting Strand Monitored by In Situ Techniques
In order to investigate the high temperature exposure effect on Nb Ti/Cu superconducting strands, as might be encountered in joining by soldering and in cabling annealing, X-ray diffraction and resistometry measurements were performed in situ during heat treatment, and complemented by conventional metallography, mechanical tests and superconducting properties measurements. Changes of the Nb Ti nanostructure at temperatures above 300°C are manifested in the degradation of critical current in an applied external magnetic field, although degradation at self field was insignificant up to 400°C for several minutes. Above 500°C, the formation of various Cu Ti intermetallic compounds, due to Ti diffusion from Nb Ti into Cu, is detected by in situ XRD albeit not resolvable by SEM-EDS. There is a ductile to brittle transition near 600°C, and liquid formation is observed below 900°C. The formation of Cu Ti causes a delayed reduction of the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and adversely affects the deformation behaviour of the strands.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme E. Murch, Ali Shokuhfar and João M.P.Q. Delgado
I. Pong et al., "Cu Ti Formation in Nb Ti/Cu Superconducting Strand Monitored by In Situ Techniques", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 297-301, pp. 695-701, 2010