The Effect of Al2O3 and Li2O on the Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation
The utilization of Al2O3 and Li2O as dopants that promote the anatase-to-rutile (A-R) phase transition in TiO2 nanoparticles during calcinations is studied. X-Ray Diffraction and SEM techniques were employed for the evaluation of phase transformation and particle size coarsening in pure TiO2, TiO2-Al2O3 and TiO2-Li2O mixtures. For the Li-Ti-O pseudobinary systems some complex oxides may be formed during phase transformation that occurs at significantly lower temperatures compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-Al2O3 mixtures. Al2O3 doping in TiO2 only increases the anatase-to-rutile transition rate once the phase transformation has been initiated.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme E. Murch, Ali Shokuhfar and João M.P.Q. Delgado
M.D. Athanassopoulou et al., "The Effect of Al2O3 and Li2O on the Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 297-301, pp. 918-923, 2010