Cocoa Husk Waste Mucilage as New Flow Improver in Pipelines
Liquid transportation through pipelines for very long distances is one of the most power consuming sectors in the industry. Synthetic polymers were used as flow improvers for many years to solve the power dissipation problem. These polymers are toxic and expensive. An environmentally friendly and more natural product that can replace the usage of polymers as flow improvers is needed. The present study focused on a new, cheap, natural and environmentally friendly flow improver that was extracted from the cocoa husk wastes. Mucilage was prepared from the cocoa husk waste and tested in aqueous media at concentrations between 100 ppm and 400 ppm using pipes with an internal diameter of 0.0125, 0.0254 and 0.0381 m and five different fluid velocities represented by the corresponding Reynolds Numbers (Re). It was found that the cocoa husk mucilage was an effective drag reducing agent. A maximum drag reduction percentage of 44% could be achieved by adding as little as 400 ppm of mucilage. Drag reduction was found to increase by increasing Reynolds Numbers, additive concentrations and pipe lengths. It also increased with decreasing pipe diameters.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme E. Murch and João M.P.Q. Delgado
H. A. Abdulbari et al., "Cocoa Husk Waste Mucilage as New Flow Improver in Pipelines", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 312-315, pp. 1063-1067, 2011