Abstract: The occurrence of superplasticity may be traced to the classic work of Pearson conducted in the U.K. in 1934 when an elongation of 1950% was reported in a Pb-Sn eutectic alloy. Subsequently, much attention in Russia was devoted to this scientific curiosity and this led to the first book on superplasticity written by Prof. A.A. Presnyakov and published in 1964. Later, in 1985, Oscar Kaibyshev established in Ufa the Institute of Problems of Superplasticity of Metals of the Russian Academy of Sciences and this was, and remains to this day, the only institute in the world devoted exclusively to studies of the phenomenon of superplastic flow and the development through superplastic forming of complex-shaped parts. An important development occurred in 1988 with the publication of a classic report by Kaibyshev and co-workers describing the potential for achieving low temperature superplasticity in a metallic Al-Cu-Zr alloy that had been specially processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) to produce a remarkably small grain size of only 300 nm. This report formed the basis for the later development of SPD processing as a major tool for the production of exceptional grain refinement and as a procedure for achieving large superplastic elongations that cannot be achieved using more conventional processing. This report describes this early work, the subsequent developments and the modern status of superplastic flow in ultrafine-grained metals.
Abstract: The bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials usually show superior mechanical properties. Since the occurrence of superplastic flow generally requires a grain size smaller than ~10 μm, it is anticipated that materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) will exhibit superplastic ductilities when pulled in tension at elevated temperatures. Recent advances in the processing of UFG metals have provided an opportunity to extend the understanding of superplastic flow behavior to include UFG materials with submicrometer grain sizes. Recent studies showed the UFG materials demonstrated the development of plasticity in micro-mechanical response at room temperature by the significant changes in microstructure attributed to high-pressure torsion (HPT). Accordingly, this study summarizes recent results on excellent ductility and plasticity in a UFG Zn-22% Al alloy. Specifically, the alloy demonstrated the occurrence of exceptional superplastic flow at high temperature after equal-channel angular pressing and HPT and excellent room temperature plasticity of the alloy after HPT where the plasticity was evaluated by the nanoindentation technique. The significance of purity of the alloy is also considered for enhancing the ductility at room temperature.
Abstract: The commercial Zr-modified 5083 aluminum alloy was homogenized to precipitate nanoscale Al6Mn particles and then undergone to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 300 °C to a true strain of ~12 via BC route. The obtained ultrafine-grained material was subjected to friction-stir welding (FSW). The welding variables were selected to provide reasonable homogeneous microstructure distribution across the weld zone and thus to ensure a highly uniform elongation during subsequent superplastic tests of the joints. Superplastic behavior of the obtained welds is discussed.
Abstract: The present study shows that warmly forged and low-temperature annealed twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel exhibited very high dislocation density and apparent yield-point phenomenon in addition to very high yield strength. The initial density of dislocations significantly affected the evolution of dislocations during the subsequent tensile deformation. Original high dense dislocations prompted the rapid increase of dislocations, and intensified the complexity of dislocation configurations. All these effects made the twinning deformation weakened but the dislocation deformation enhanced, leading to increased strength but decreased plasticity.
Abstract: “Power law’’ representation is used to describe minimum creep rate and “steady state” superplastic deformation. In creep isothermal log stress – log strain rate relationship is linear for so long as the rate controlling mechanism remains unchanged. During optimal superplastic flow the slope of this curve changes even when there is no change in the rate controlling mechanism, i.e. the stress exponent, n, at a constant temperature and grain size is a function of strain rate. For a constant rate controlling mechanism, in both the phenomena, n decreases with increasing temperature. Grain size has no effect on creep, but its effect is significant in superplasticity. Therefore, analyzing creep and superplasticity data by treating n for any given mechanism as a constant independent of stress and temperature is questionable. In this analysis stress is normalized with respect to a reference stress, rather than the shear modulus. The microstructure dependence comes through the Buckingham Pi theorem. When contribution from microstructure terms to isothermal strain rate is constant, Laurent’s theorem helps generate a set of values for n. It is shown that the simplest solution, viz. n is independent of stress, but is a linear function of temperature, describes steady state creep. (The case n is independent of both stress and temperature follows as a special case.) The second simplest solution, viz. n is a linear function of both temperature and stress corresponds to steady state superplasticity. Using the equations, the values of n, activation energies for the rate controlling processes and strain rates at different temperatures and stresses could be estimated for both creep and superplasticity. The analysis is validated using experimental results concerning many systems. iiThis lecture is dedicated to the sacred memory of late Prof. Oleg D. Sherby.
Abstract: A viewpoint that suggests that grain/ interphase boundary sliding (GBS) that develops to a mesoscopic scale (“cooperative boundary sliding”) controls optimal superplastic (SP) deformation is able to explain superplasticity in metals and alloys, ceramics, intermetallics, composites and bulk metallic glasses of grain sizes ranging from a few microns down to a few nanometers. It is extended here to describe grain-size-sensitive (GSS) flow in minerals, rocks and ice within narrow experimental ranges. In this approach the accommodation processes of grain boundary diffusion, dislocation emission from sliding boundaries and/ or grain rotation accompanying boundary sliding are present over extremely short distances and are assumed to be faster than GBS. Analysis shows that GSS creep in geological and glacial materials can be accounted for in terms of four “universal”, mesoscopic scale constants of average values, = 0.197, = 0.415 J.m-2, = 8.9 and = 0.166, where is the average shear strain associated with a basic boundary sliding event at the level of the atomistics, is the specific grain boundary energy (assumed to be isotropic), is the number of boundaries that align to form a mesoscopic boundary glide plane and “” is a constant that obeys the condition 0<a<0.5, whose magnitude depends on grain shape and size distribution in the material. It is demonstrated that with the help of these four constants and the Frost-Ashby equations for estimating the shear modulus, it is possible to predict steady state GSS creep flow in any geological or glacial material, including those whose mechanical response was not used to obtain the “universal” constants. Whether these observations are evidence for “superplasticity” in these materials can be known only if the findings are reproduced in tensile deformation also.
Abstract: The 7075 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) aluminium alloy is the reference alloy for aerospace applications due to its specific mechanical properties at room temperature, showing excellent tensile strength and sufficient ductility. Formability at high temperature can be improved by obtaining superplasticity as a result of fine, equiaxed and highly misoriented grains prone to deform by grain boundary sliding (GBS). Different severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing routes such as ECAP, ARB, HPT and FSP have been considered and their effect on mechanical properties, especially at intermediate to high temperatures, are studied. Refined grains as fine as 100 nm and average misorientations as high as 39o allow attainment of high strain rate superplasticity (HSRSP) at lower than usual temperatures (250-300oC). It is shown that increasing misorientations are obtained with increasing applied strain, and increasing grain refinement is obtained with increasing processing stress. Thus, increasing superplastic strains at higher strain rates, lower stresses and lower temperatures are obtained with increasing processing strain and, specially, processing stress.
Abstract: Modelling and predicting the flow behaviour of metallic materials subjected to superplastic deformation is mandatory for providing useful information about the metal forming process. This information helps the designers to reduce the manufacturing time and costs by choosing appropriate deformation conditions based on the models results. The study developed a constitutive model to predict the flow behaviour of various Ti-based alloys (Ti-2.5Al-1.8Mn, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-4Al-1V-3Mo) at elevated temperatures. The constant strain rate tests within the superplastic temperature and the strain rate ranges for each alloy were performed. The experimental tensile tests results were used to develop the hyperbolic sine Arrhenius-type constitutive models for each alloy. The performance of the developed model for each alloy was evaluated regarding the correlation coefficient (R), the mean absolute relative error (AARE) and the root mean square error (RMSE). The results revealed that the predicted flow stresses have a good agreement with the experimental flow stresses for the studied alloys.
Abstract: Effect of ultrasonic treatment (UST) with an amplitude of oscillating tension-compression stresses 100 MPa on the characteristics of superplastic deformation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is studied. During tensile tests at 600°C with initial strain rates in the interval from 10-4 to 10-3 s-1, ultrasonically irradiated samples exhibit a reduced flow stress, higher values of the strain rate sensitivity coefficient and elongation to failure as compared to the samples tested directly after ECAP. Detailed studies of the microstructure of samples subjected to ECAP only and ECAP followed by UST revealed no considerable differences. It is suggested that the UST affected fine structure of the material bringing them to a state with a higher ability of relaxation of deformation-induced defects.