Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials IV

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Authors: Nikolay G. Galkin, Konstantin N. Galkin, Igor M. Chernev, Dmitrii L'vovich Goroshko, Evgeniy Anatolievich Chusovitin, Alexander V. Shevlyagin, Andrey A. Usenko, Vladimir V. Khovaylo
Abstract: The growth, structure, optical, electrical and thermoelectric properties of calcium silicides of various compositions on silicon substrates with (100) and (111) orientations were experimentally studied. It was found that when the atoms of Ca and Si are co-deposited on atomically clean silicon, the basis phases in the composition of the formed films depends on the substrate temperature and the annealing temperature: Ca2Si (TSi = 20°C, Tann = 330°C), CaSi (TSi = 190-320°C, Tann = 330°C) and CaSi2 (TSi = 500°C). It was established that the Ca2Si phase is a direct-gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.82±0.02 eV, large contribution of defect levels to the absorption coefficient at energies 0.25 - 0.50 eV and huge transmission up 90% in the far IR region. In CaSi-based films the high transmission (30-40%) up to 25 μm was observed, which corresponds to a semimetal with a constant density of states near the Fermi level. It was found that CaSi-based films have the maximum Seebeck coefficient and the power factor (up to 430 μV/K and up to 1.14 × 10-6 W/(K2m), respectively) at 330K. CaSi2 films with CaSi2 lattice stretching and epitaxial ordering relative to the Si (100) substrate exhibit semimetal properties, with very high conductivity and light transparency (up 12%) in the photon energy range 0.06 - 0.65 eV.
Authors: Nikolay I. Plusnin
Abstract: A wetting layer with a nanophase structure was detected and identified before the first bulk phase during the formation of the metal-silicon interface by vapor-phase deposition at room temperature of the substrate. This became possible due to the developed technique for complex analysis of the structural-chemical state of the surface/ interface with help of Auger electron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and also due to the method of physical vapor deposition at low temperature of vapor. The discovery this wetting layer and stage of its formation fundamentally changes the approach to the formation of contact between metal and silicon.
Authors: Andrei M. Maslov, Nikolay I. Plusnin
Abstract: Optical reflection spectra in the photon energy range of 1.5-6 eV have been studied after the growth of ultrathin iron films on silicon (001) in the 0-1.2 nm thickness range. It has been noted that the reflection coefficient values vary nonmonotonically in thickness near the limiting energy of 1.5 eV and 6 eV. Moreover, they are abnormally large one at 1.5 eV and small one at 6 eV. It is shown that these phenomena can not be explained by simple models of the formation of a metallic, silicide film or amorphous silicon layer at the interface and correspond to structural-phase transformations in the film and in the substrate interface region.
Authors: Anna A. Spirina, Alla G. Nastovjak, Nataliya L. Shwartz
Abstract: The dependences of congruent evaporation temperature Tc and the desorption activation energies of GaAs components on the substrate surface orientation are analyzed using Monte Carlo simulation. On the vicinal surfaces with the (111)A orientation at temperatures exceeding Tc, the metal droplets start to grow at step edges, and, with the (111)B orientation, the droplets nucleate randomly on the terraces. The droplet concentration on the (111)B surface is higher than that on the (111)A surface. The droplet-crystal interface roughness is different for (111)A and (111)B orientations. The Tc of (111)B surfaces is lower than that of (111)A surfaces. For both surface orientations, Tc decreases when the vicinal surface terrace width is shorter than the double gallium diffusion length. The gallium and arsenic desorption activation energies dependence on the vicinal surface misorientation is demonstrated. A sharp increase in the arsenic desorption rate is observed with an increase of the (111)A surface coating with liquid gallium.
Authors: Anna A. Spirina, Igor Neizvestny, Nataliya L. Shwartz
Abstract: The process of GaAs and InAs substrates high-temperature annealing under the Langmuir evaporation conditions is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The temperature range of gallium arsenide and indium arsenide congruent and incongruent evaporation are determined. It was demonstrated that the congruent evaporation temperature Tc is sensitive to the vicinal surface terrace width. The decrease of the terrace width results in a decrease in the congruent evaporation temperature. The Ga and In diffusion lengths along the (111)A and (111)B surfaces at congruent temperatures are estimated. The surface morphology transformation kinetic during high-temperature annealing is analyzed.
Authors: Kenta Setojima, Syuya Ikeda, Kazuya Ogi, Yoshikazu Terai
Abstract: Semiconducting ruthenium silicide (Ru2Si3) polycrystalline thin films were grown by solid phase epitaxy using Ru-Si amorphous layers on Si substrates. The formation of Ru2Si3 phase was confirmed by XRD and Raman measurements when the amorphous layers were annealed at 600−900 °C in a vacuum. The Ru2Si3 thin films showed a low electron density of 1 × 1016 cm-3 with a high mobility of 430−940 cm2V-1s-1. Photoluminescence (PL) at ~0.8 eV was observed in the Ru2Si3 films.
Authors: Hajime Eguchi, Motoki Iinuma, Hirofumi Hoshida, Naoki Murakoso, Yoshikazu Terai
Abstract: Sb-doped β-FeSi2 epitaxial films on Si(111) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to control an electron density of β-FeSi2. After an optimization of donor activation conditions in the Sb-doped β-FeSi2, the electron density of 6 × 1018 cm-3 at 300 K was achieved by thermal annealing in a N2 ambient. In the temperature dependence of carrier density, the n-type conduction was changed to p-type conduction at low temperatures in the film annealed at high temperature (600 °C). Raman spectra of the annealed films showed that both Fe and Si sites were substituted by the doped Sb in β-FeSi2 lattice.
Authors: Hirofumi Hoshida, Naoki Murakoso, Takashi Suemasu, Yoshikazu Terai
Abstract: Infrared (IR) absorption and polarized Raman spectra were measured in BaSi2 epitaxial films to investigate the vibrational modes and the symmetry of Si4 cluster in BaSi2. By an analysis based on Raman and/or IR activity in the spectra, the symmetry of Si4 cluster was determined as Th-symmetry and the observed Raman lines and IR peaks were assigned to Ag, Eg, Fg, and Fu, respectively. In the three Raman lines of Fg-mode, one LO phonon line and two TO phonon lines were classified by the depolarization ratio of polarized Raman intensities.
Authors: Nikolay G. Galkin, Dmitrii Vladimirovich Fomin, Victor Leonidovich Dubov, Konstantin N. Galkin, Sergey Anatolyevich Pyachin, Alexander Burkov
Abstract: The search for inexpensive and efficient methods of forming thin BaSi2 films as a promising material for photovoltaic is an actual task. The co-deposition of Ba and Si atoms with alloy thickness of 100-120 nm on the silicon substrate at room temperature with following annealing (SPE method) was proposed. Ba-Si alloy compounds then were thermally annealed at different temperatures and three samples were formed: #1 at T = 600 ° C, #2 at T = 700 ° C and #3 at T = 800 ° C. Polycrystalline films with an orthorhombic BaSi2 structure were formed by XRD, UV-VIS, FIR and Raman spectroscopies data. BaSi2 grains in samples #1 and #2 have sizes 62-64 nm and 86 nm in the sample #3 from XRD data calculations by Scherrer formula. Proposed growth method resulted to strong compression of the BaSi2 unit cell volume on 1.78 – 2.70%. The strongest compression was observed after annealing at 800 °C, which was accompanied by desorption of a noticeable amount of barium and a strong decrease in the film thickness in the sample #3. The formation of nanosize Si clusters was confirmed by Raman data for samples #2 and #3, but they did not observed in the sample #3. So, the film, formed at 800 °C, is the most qualitative in terms of structure and single-phase BaSi2, but with strong decrease of initial Ba-Si alloy thickness due to Ba desorption.

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