Grain Boundary Design of Bulk Nanomaterials for Advanced Properties
Nanostructuring of metals and alloys by severe plastic deformation techniques is an effective way of enhancing their mechanical and functional properties. The features of the nanostructured materials produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are stipulated by forming of ultrafine-sized grains as well as by the state of grain boundaries. The concept of grain boundary (GB) design of ultrafine-grained metals and alloys is developed for enhancement of their properties by tailoring grain boundaries of different types (low-angle and high-angle ones, special and random, equilibrium and nonequilibrium) and formation of grain boundary segregations and precipitations by SPD processing. The paper presents experimental data demonstrating the super-strength and “positive” slope of the Hall-Petch relation when passing from micro-to nanostructured state in a number of metallic materials subjected to severe plastic deformation. The nature of the superior strength is associated with new strengthening mechanisms and the difficulty of generation of dislocations from grain boundaries with segregations. This new approach is used for achieving the enhanced strength in several commercial Al and Ti alloys as well as steels subjected to SPD processing.
Vladimir V. Popov and Elena N. Popova
R. Z. Valiev "Grain Boundary Design of Bulk Nanomaterials for Advanced Properties", Diffusion Foundations, Vol. 5, pp. 43-54, 2015