Vladimir V. Popov and Elena N. Popova
Online since: July 2015
Description: The majority of materials, especially metals, are used in the form of polycrystals. It is well recognized that many properties of polycrystalline materials are determined by grain boundaries (GBs). Grain boundaries appreciably affect many practically important mechanical and physical properties of construction materials. Grain-boundary diffusion plays a key role in such practically important processes as Coble creep, sintering, diffusion induced grain boundary migration (DIGM), various discontinuous reactions, recrystallization and grain growth. The purpose of this Volume is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of structure, thermodynamics and diffusion properties of grain boundaries and interfaces. The Volume includes reviews of both experimental and theoretical studies carried out by well-recognized scientists whose publications are well-known and widely cited.
Irina V. Belova, Prof. Graeme E. Murch and Prof. Andreas Öchsner
Online since: July 2015
Description: This volume of Diffusion Foundations entitled Diffusion Phenomena in Engineering Materials captures an important cross section of the contemporary scene of diffusion in solids, ranging from the fundamental science of diffusion through to the application of diffusion concepts in technology. The chapters are written by well-acknowledged experts in their respective areas. In the first chapter, Professor Dayananda provides an in depth overview of some of the important findings from the vast literature on multicomponent diffusion in alloys. In Chapter 2, Professors Belova and Murch and co-workers describe a new solution to the important problem of accurately estimating a tracer diffusivity in a binary alloy, given the other tracer diffusivity, the interdiffusivity and thermodynamic factor. This is followed by Chapter 3 where Professor Lidiard gives a penetrating perspective on the state of knowledge about the Soret effect and thermodiffusion (thermotransport) in solids. In Chapter 4, Professor Kozlowski and colleagues describe important new findings about the critical dimensions of ferromagnetic nanoparticles of iron. This is followed by Chapter 5 where Professor çimenoglu and co-workers present an in depth overview of surface hardening of titanium and its alloys by way of diffusion of the interstitial atoms of oxygen, nitrogen and boron. In Chapter 6 Professor Morton-Blake describes fascinating new molecular dynamics simulations of sodium and chloride ions in a synthetic ion channel in a membrane. Finally, in Chapter 7, Professor Seetharaman and colleagues describe the important role of diffusion phenomena in process metallurgy. We wish to thank the authors for their prompt contributions and the reviewers for their input.
Online since: February 2015
Description: The purpose of this Volume is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer in porous media. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a porous medium domain, as well as related material properties and their measurements. This volume contents include both theoretical and experimental developments, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers.The topics that will be presented in this Volume will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering, etc….The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.In Chapter 1, Prof. Pereira and colleagues presents a numerical analysis of heat and mass transport during drying of grains with particular reference to bean and rough rice. In Chapter 2, Prof. Delgado discuss a method for determining the coefficient of transverse dispersion in flow through packed beds, which is based on the measurement of the rate of dissolution of planar or cylindrical surfaces, buried in the bed and aligned with the flow direction. In Chapter 3, Professors Delgado and Vázquez da Silva report the use of Darcy flow theory for mass transfer around a sphere buried in a granular bed to numerically obtain the concentration boundary layer thickness of a soluble sphere over a wide range of values of relevant parameters. This is followed by Chapter 4 by Professors Malico and Ferreira de Sousa who presents the extension of a compact finite difference immersed boundary method for the detailed calculation of fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media. In Chapter 5, Prof. Almeida Cruz and colleagues presents a theoretical and experimental study about water absorption in unsaturated polyester polymer composites reinforced with vegetable fibers, with particular reference to macambira fiber. In Chapter 6, Professors Kacur and Minár present a method for the determination of the hydraulic permeability for flow in partially saturated porous media. This is followed by Chapter 7 by Prof. Barreira and colleagues who present a detailed analysis of the drying kinetics of solid red bricks. In Chapter 8, Prof. Almeida and colleagues analyse the hygrothermal performance and degradation of gypsum houses in different Brazilian climates. In Chapter 9, Prof. Miguel presents the key mechanisms behind pedestrian dynamics, namely individual and collective patterns of motion. In Chapter 10, Prof. Gorbachev and colleagues simulate the precipitates evolution in steels with Nb and V, in which two carbonitride phases can coexist. Finally, in Chapter 11, Prof. Freitas and colleagues presents a detailed case study to evaluate the performance over time of adhesive systems for bonding ceramic tiles used on the façades of a building located near the sea.
Prof. Rafal Abdank-Kozubski
Online since: September 2014
Description: The fascinating development of materials science which nowadays definitely involves the previously side-lined basic research within physics and chemistry has led to a number of innovative technologies of new materials. Despite many hopes and even successes in replacing traditional metallic materials by, for example, polymers or composites, the former materials are not only still widely used but are also making a 'come back'. As an example, intermetallic phases are enjoying an ever increasing interest as either functional or high-temperature structural materials and are prominent in this development. The present volume responds to the above trends by presenting a series of 7 extended articles devoted to diverse aspects of diffusion in intermetallic phases studied both experimentally and theoretically. The opening chapter gives an overview on the subject matter and focuses on binary intermetallics. It is followed by two works presenting results obtained by means of two particular promising experimental methods that allow the observation of diffusion phenomena in terms of individual acts of atomic migration. Diffusion in nanostructured intermetallic materials is addressed in the following two contributions which discuss a hot topic of diffusion-controlled solid-state reactions including self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Elucidation and interpretation of the experimental results is proposed in terms of analytical calculations, as well as of atomistic simulations. The final two chapters of the volume are devoted to two particular diffusion-controlled phenomena observed in Ni-Al - an intermetallic recently being of both technological and basic interest. The first of these presents a thorough theoretical study of thermotransport in liquid NiAl while the closing chapter reports on an atomistic simulation study of ordering phenomena in NiAl that is fundamentally controlled by vacancy thermodynamics.
Prof. Graeme E. Murch, Prof. Andreas Öchsner and Prof. Irina V. Belova
Online since: April 2014
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS)
In the first chapter Prof. Kozubski and colleagues present atomistic simulations of superstructure transformations of intermetallic nanolayers. In Chapter 2, Prof. Danielewski and colleagues discuss a formalism for themorphology of the diffusion zone in ternary alloys. In Chapter 3, ProfessorsSprengel and Koiwa discuss the classical contributions of Boltzmann andMatano for the analysis of concentration-dependent diffusion. This isfollowed by Chapter 4 by Professor Cserháti and colleagues on the use of Kirkendall porosity for fabricating hollow hemispheres. In Chapter 5,Professor Morton-Blake reports on molecular dynamics calculations of ions ina synthetic channel. In Chapter 6, Professor Bokstein and Dr Rodin reviewgrain boundary diffusion and segregation in metals and alloys. This isfollowed by a review by Professor Mehrer on diffusion in glassy metals(Chapter 7). In Chapter 8 Professor Prochazka and colleagues report ondefects and sintering in yttria-stabilized zirconia using positronannihilation spectroscopy and in Chapter 9 Professor Fishman… and colleaguesreport on mechanical activation of Mn-O oxides. Finally in Chapter 10 Professors Popova and Popov analyse the role of diffusion in the structureand texture of Cu-Nb composites.