Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 27

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Authors: Bhirawa Putra Bagus, He Xu, Zhao Jie Liu, Xin Liang Huang
Abstract: With the increasing projects on surveillance and monitoring purposes over the years, the requirement of visual equipment especially in autonomous mobile robot (AMR) has improved. By implementing Computerized Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method, Coanda-effect was introduced to get better flow characteristic (radial and tangential pressure - velocity profiles) on surface particle cleaning in AMR application. To establish this condition, a novel design of particle removal based on human lacrimal system was reconstructed and gradually examined to obtain optimized particle cleaning which carried out in FLUENT and iSIGHT. Throughout the history of mankind, nature has become a source of inspiration towards technical and engineering design. A biomimetic approach was utilized as main concept in providing design process with incorporating both form aspects and functional principles. As design process progressed, the bionic innovation can serve as a prominent role in the development of engineering design. Simultaneous practice - recognition - practice is repeated, in order to make things more consistent with the simulated production needs. Under these circumstances, the growth and structure of surface disturbances by a coaxial airflow in accordance with pressure distribution and shear stresses were numerically investigated. Furthermore, an optimization method for achieving optimal particle cleaning was formulated based on independent variables with the objectives to maximize pressure flow and drag force coefficient while minimizing the dynamic turbulence flow. The influence of pressure distribution, nozzles angle of attack and particle matters have also been explored. Result shows that this design structure qualitatively represents characteristic of the optimum surface cleaning performance in terms of particle drag force and energy efficiency.
Authors: Dong Sun, Yao Dong Gu, Gusztáv Fekete, Justin Fernandez
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to testing for difference in performance and injury risks between three different outsole configuration soccer boots on artificial turf. Fourteen experienced soccer players performed 45° cut test. They selected soccer boots with artificial ground design (AG), turf cleats boots (TF) and indoor boots (IN) randomly. A Vicon three dimension motion analysis system was used to capture kinematic data and Kistler force platform was used to record the ground reaction force. Novel Pedar-X insole plantar pressure measurement system was utilized to collect the plantar pressure synchronized. During 45° cut, artificial ground design (AG) showed significantly smaller peak knee flexion (p<0.001) and greater abduction angles (p<0.001) than indoor boots (IN). AG showed significantly greater vertical average loading rate (VALR) compared with TF (p=0.005) and IN (p=0.003). The results of plantar pressure found that AG showed the highest peak pressure and force-time integral in the heel (H) and medial forefoot (MFF). Artificial ground design (AG) and turf cleats (TF) may offer a performance benefit on artificial turf compared to IN. In summary, AG may enhance athletic performance on artificial turf, but also may undertake higher risks of non-contact injuries compared with TF and IN.
Authors: Fitriyatul Qulub, Prihartini Widiyanti, Jan Ady
Abstract: The high number of bone fractures, around 300-400 cases per month, are treated with orthopedic surgery method using internal fixation by bone screw which is aimed at accelerating patients’ mobilization. There is a necessity to invent biomaterial which possesses two main characteristics: biocompatible and biofunctional, as well as having an important element of biodegradable without conducting reoperation. A research focused on the various composition of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) derived from extracted snapper fish scales on Poly (1,8-octanediol-Co-Citrate (POC) as Biodegradable Bone screw. This research is purported to synthesize Poly (1,8-Octanediol-co-Citrate (POC) and characterize the influence of HA compositions against mechanical properties and compatibility of POC-HA composite that enable it to be used as Biodegradable Bone screw material. The condensation polymerization method is applied in synthesizing POC to produce POC pre-polymer by the formation of an ester bond group C=O stretch at 1731 cm-1 through a test of functional groups (FTIR). POC pre-polymer is composited with nano-HA compositions of 62%, 65%, 68% and 71% and followed by post-polymerization treatment. POC-HA composites formed were tested on hardness and biodegradability. The results obtained indicate that the composition of HA nanoparticles influences the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the material. Best results were from 62% HA composition in which the hardness value was of 885.57 MPa, close to that of bone hardness which is 150-664 MPa. Results also showed that the rate of biodegradation reached 3.42% (4 weeks) which is in accordance to fracture bone grafting period of 21 months. Based on the characteristics result indicated in this study, the composite of Poly (1,8-Octanediol-co-Citrate) (POC)-Nano Hydroxyapatite is a potential candidate for biodegradable bone screw material.
Authors: Ravichandran H. Kollarigowda
Abstract: Photo-sensitive, smart switchable polymers are macromolecules that change its properties when irradiated with the light of the appropriate wavelength. Due to this uniqueness photo polymers has wide application. In this review we discuss the photopolymer chemistry and explain the changing the morphology of polymeric materials after exposing into light. Also we discussed photo-polymers applications in biomedical field.
Authors: Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib
Abstract: Threshold image intensity for patient vascular models is determined instinctively. In this study, we used the simple method of threshold resolve to evaluate the effect of threshold image intensity level on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm. This investigation involved five patients with internal carotid aneurysms collected in retrospect between August 2010 and October 2012. In 3-dimensional rotational angiography with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image data, we set five straight line probe across the parent of the internal carotid artery and deliberate the average profile curve of the image intensity along this line. To determine the threshold image intensity level objectively, we calculated the threshold coefficient Cthre using this profile curve. The effect of Cthre value on vascular model configuration and the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution of the aneurysm was evaluated. Result shows for the inlet area and volume of the vascular model decreased and WSS increased according to the Cthre value increase. In one stage, the pattern of WSS distribution changed strangely and the threshold image intensity level can result reflective effects on CFD. This finding necessary to advance a further understanding of problems in image segmentation and solving the patient-specific aneurysm problems.
Authors: Mohammed Benhaddou, M. Abbadi, M. Ghammouri
Abstract: In the present study, ABAQUS finite element modelling was used to explore the durability of cardiovascular stent made of AISI 316L. It was found that the blood pressure loading never causes the fracture of the stent. This result was confirmed by the application of two critical plane approaches and one mean stress criterion. However, when subjected to restenosis compressive loading the stent was found to experience an in-service failure. The last proved to be dependent on the stent diameter reduction, rate and location of restenosis. Since restenosis forms gradually and randomly within the artery, two distributions were considered and investigated. The eccentric restenosis turned out to be more deleterious than the concentric one.
Authors: Chao Zhu Zhang, Ahmed Kareem Abdullah, Ali Abdullabs Abdullah
Abstract: Blind source separation (BSS) is an important technique used to recover isolated independent sources signals from mixtures. This paper proposes two blind artificial intelligent separation algorithms based on hybridization between artificial intelligent techniques with classical blind source separation algorithms to enhance the separation process. Speedy genetic algorithm SGA directly guesses the optimal coefficients of the separating matrix based on candidate initial from classical BSS algorithms also the separation criteria based on minimization of mutual information between the separating independent components. The proposed algorithms are tested by real Electroencephalogram (EEG) data, the experimental results indicate that the algorithms can quickly and effectively get optimum solution to linear blind source separation compared to classical BSS techniques, the proposed works are described by high accuracy and robustness.
Authors: Mesud Kahriman, Ozlem Coskun, Esin Yavuz
Abstract: In recent years humans are more exposed to human-made fields than natural fields with developing technologies. Especially, widespread of wireless communication technologies in all areas of daily life and getting closer to sensitive organs like brain caused an increase in possible risks and worries about human health. In the study, a temperature measurement card has been designed and produced with the aim of observing the temperature rise at the phantom model generated by EM energy source. To that end, we present a study on the temperature rise of small dipole antenna (2450 MHz) that operate close to a user’s head (1, 4 and 7 cm). We found good correspondence between the temperature rise values evaluated in the phantom heads. According to the results of measure, expected temperature rise in the tissue exposed to RF energy may varies to the distance between radiated source and tissue.
Authors: Kallam Suresh, M. Rajasekhara Babu
Abstract: Internet of Things and Big Data are critical passion to applying medical field. But both field interaction necessary for Bio Medical fields to improve the Doctor efficiency and it helps to serve patients in better way. In this paper mention that what are the important of the Bio Medical field linking with most recent Technology. Scientific relations to delaying with unstructured data analysis. Digital Device integration requirements for patients. Digital way user friendly communication with Doctor to patient. It helpful for finding disease and counseling patient complications reduce. Finally we achieved a better virtual environment creating with Doctor to patients for improving service.

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