Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 30

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Authors: Khudhur A. Alfarhan, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, Abdul Rahman Mohd Saad, Hayder A. Azeez, Mustafa M. Sabry
Abstract: Arrhythmia, a common form of heart disease, can be detected from an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. This research work presents a comparative study between five feature extraction methods applied separately on two window sizes for detecting three ECG pulse types, namely normal and two arrhythmia variations. The library support vector machine (LIBSVM) was used to classify the three classes of the ECG pulses. The ECG signals were obtained from MIT-BIH database. The ECG dataset was normalized and filtered to remove any noise and after that the signals were windowed into two window sizes (long window and short window). Five approaches were used to extract the features from the ECG signals. These approaches are scalar Autoregressive model coefficients, Haar discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Daubechies (db) DWT, Biorthogonal (bior) DWT, and principal components analysis (PCA). Each approach was applied separately on the two window sizes. The results of the classification show that scalar Autoregressive model coefficients, Haar, db, and bior are better approaches to catch the ECG features for short window than the long window. However, PCA gave the closest and highest results for the two window sizes than other approaches. That mean the PCA is the better feature extraction approach for both window sizes.
Authors: Chiranji Lal Chowdhary, D.P. Acharjya
Abstract: Different fuzzy segmentation methods were used in medical imaging from last two decades for obtaining better accuracy in various approaches like detecting tumours etc. Well-known fuzzy segmentations like fuzzy c-means (FCM) assign data to every cluster but that is not realistic in few circumstances. Our paper proposes a novel possibilistic exponential fuzzy c-means (PEFCM) clustering algorithm for segmenting medical images. This new clustering algorithm technology can maintain the advantages of a possibilistic fuzzy c-means (PFCM) and exponential fuzzy c-mean (EFCM) clustering algorithms to maximize benefits and reduce noise/outlier influences. In our proposed hybrid possibilistic exponential fuzzy c-mean segmentation approach, exponential FCM intention functions are recalculated and that select data into the clusters. Traditional FCM clustering process cannot handle noise and outliers so we require being added in clusters due to the reasons of common probabilistic constraints which give the total of membership’s degree in every cluster to be 1. We revise possibilistic exponential fuzzy clustering (PEFCM) which hybridize possibilistic method over exponential fuzzy c-mean segmentation and this proposed idea partition the data filters noisy data or detects them as outliers. Our result analysis by PEFCM segmentation attains an average accuracy of 97.4% compared with existing algorithms. It was concluded that the possibilistic exponential fuzzy c-means segmentation algorithm endorsed for additional efficient for accurate detection of breast tumours to assist for the early detection.
Authors: M. Hanif Nadhif, Yudan Whulanza, Jos Istiyanto, Boy M. Bachtiar
Abstract: This paper investigates the ability of biomachined lab-on-a-chip (LoC) to perform drug testing of Amphotericin B to the Candida albicans. The chip is made of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). Molds are patterned using CNC milling followed by biomachining. CNC milling process creates channel features on the bottom mold, while biomachining forms rough surface on the channels. After the molds are created, LoC can be manufactured using those molds. Hence, contour surface on LoC’s channels is also realized following the mold surface. Later, Candida albicans is seeded on the LoC’s channels for 24 and 48 hours with the continuous flow of Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB) Sterile. Then, cell viability is tested using 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT). The result shows that C. albicans could adhere and grow in the LoC channels. Based on this result, drug testing is conducted in the presence and absence of Amphotericin B (Amp B) under two schemes: without (static) and with (dynamic) the continuous flow of YNB Sterile and Amp B. After 48 hour incubation period, C. albicans biofilm of 28.72 % is shown during dynamic scheme, whereas static scheme had C. albicans biofilm of 99.32 % indicating that the dynamic scheme provides a better efficacy compared to the static scheme.
Authors: Dan Dan Qian, Yun Tao Li, Yang Shu, Yao Dong Gu, Yan Zhang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Xue Wen Jia
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the balance of different condition of grounds through changing the inclines, and investigate the influence of lower extremities in different inclines. 20 healthy young males were taken as experimental participants. The Six-degree-of-freedom Motion Platform was taken to change the inclines to: -5°,0°,5°,10°. The Vicon three-dimension motion analysis system was utilized to capture the spatiotemporal parameters and the three-dimensional coordinates of lower extremities. On uphill, incline had no significant impact on balance. But tortuosity of hip and knee could significantly increase with the incline. On downhill, balance was significantly less than flat. Tortuosity of knee joint was significant larger than it on the flat ground. The mobility of hip and knee joint was large on uphill; the mobility of knee is large on downhill, but the balance was reduced. These could provide useful biomechanics information on clinical evaluation with dynamic balance. The result might have great significance to the lower extremities rehabilitation.
Authors: Quan He Bao, Li Qing Zhao, He Min Jing, Qiang Xu
Abstract: HA and HA/Col were prepared by a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition of coatings were studied by SEM, XRD. In vitro study was performed by immersion the sample In Hank’s solution for 7 days. The H2 evolution of the HA/col coating was as low as 0.24 ml/cm2 which can insignificant increase the corrosion resistance of AZ31.
Authors: Elvis K. Tiburu, Benjamin W. Kankpeyeng, Samuel N. Nkumbaan, Ali Salifu, Jain Qin Zhuang
Abstract: The application of clay nanocrystals in healing has gained notoriety in recent years. The objective of this work was to investigate whether two medical clay nanocrystals obtained from different geographical locations could exhibit differential cell growth. X-ray diffraction analyses of both nanocrystal materials revealed orthorhombic chamosite structure with lattice parameters: a =15 Å, b= 8 Å and c=7 Å whereas energy dispersive x-ray results showed the presence of Al, Si, Fe and O in both materials. However the porosity measurements of the two materials revealed different pore structures. Both materials were tested on human fetal osteoblast cells and the results showed differential cell growth in vitro. The results underscore the significance of pore structures in cell response as against the chemical composition or the structure of the material. Future mechanistic evaluation would be conducted to better understand the pathways leading to the increased/decrease osteoblast adhesion and proliferation by these materials and possible modification of the clay materials for biomedical applications.
Authors: Jopeth M. Ramis, Bryan B. Pajarito, Custer C. Deocaris
Abstract: The study presents a method on producing defect-free polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin (PVAG) nanofibers by considering multiple morphological characteristics of the produced nanofibers using the Taguchi method. Aside from minimizing the average fiber diameter, the method was also used to produce consistent, monodispersed PVAG nanofibers without the usual defects of beading and splattering. The experiments are performed considering the effect of polymer composition (PVAG ratio and solvent ratio of water, formic acid, and acetic acid H2O:FA:HAc) and process factors (tip-to-collector distance TCD and solution flow rate) on fiber morphology. Fiber morphology is measured in terms of 4 responses: average fiber diameter, standard deviation of fiber diameter, occurrence of beading, and occurrence of splattering. Results show that maximum overall desirability for electrospinning PVAG nanofibers at smallest average diameter and deviation (26.10 ± 9.88 nm) with chance of moderate beading and zero splattering is predicted at PVAG mass ratio of 6.5:3.5, H2O:FA:HAc solvent volume ratio of 4:4:2, TCD of 12.5 cm, and flow rate of 1 ml h-1. Results of confirmatory run agree with the predicted factor levels at maximum desirability, with average fiber diameter and standard deviation measured to be 26.95 ± 6.39 nm. PVAG nanofibers of the confirmatory run are also both bead-and splatter-free. Results suggest the application of Taguchi method can offer a robust and rapid approach in deriving the conditions for production of new and high-quality PVAG nanofibers for tissue engineering scaffolds.
Authors: Waya Rahmaning Gusti Agrippina, Prihartini Widiyanti, Helmy Yusuf
Abstract: In Indonesia, breast cancer is noted as the most common cancer in women. Accordingly, this research was conducted to synthesize biofilm from bacterial cellulose by adding ethanol extract of mangosteen peel. The pellicle of bacterial cellulose was soaked in a 100 mL ethanol solution of mangosteen peel extract varied by 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% v/v. The samples were characterized using the SEM, FTIR, and MTT Assay using the T47D breast cancer cells. The results using the SEM showed the thickness of the bacterial cellulose biofilm samples was 5.63 μm, while the 2% v/v thickness of the bacterial cellulose of the extract of mangosteen peel biofilm samples was 12.2 μm. The FTIR results showed a weak interaction between the O-H groups of the microbial cellulose and the C=C functional group in the phenolic compounds of the mangosteen peel extract. Based on the MTT Assay test results using the T47D breast cancer cells, the highest percentage of cell death result was 25.47% on the 2% v/v bacterial cellulose of the mangosteen peel extract samples. The Garcinia mangostana extracts added in the bacterial cellulose biofilms still required optimal concentrations in order to become potential killing mechanism for the T47D breast cancer cells.
Authors: Y.G. Romanenko, V.I. Mamchur, A.E. Levykh
Abstract: In the conditions of experi mental chronic gastritis and duodenitis reproduction, carried out among Wistar line 24 rats, was investigated effect of the nitrogen oxide stable metabolites content in the gums homogenates on a lamina propria structure and function. Results of our research have been shown, that level of nitrogen oxide stable metabolites in the rats’ gums tissues homogenates with gastritis and duodenitis decreased in three times, compared with a same period at the intact animals, which indicated about depletion of a nitrogen oxide depot at the given disease. It was revealed a significant decrease typical for the protein and glycoprotein content in the animals gums tissues at the experimental group, which indicated about the catabolic processes predominance. Amount of hexosamines in the gums was significantly increased, which was correlated with a morphological picture (gums lamina propria impregnation with the blood plasma proteins), testified about a change in the vascular wall permeability and microcirculation disruption. In the animals from experimental group was reduced a height of gums papillae connective tissue to 27.18±1.86 x 10-6 m against 56.93±2.64 x 10-6 m in the rats from control group. In the gums lamina propria defines phenomenon of the papillary and reticular layer fibrosis. After medicamentous correction, carried out with an antioxidant and the nitrogen oxide donor was observed repairing structure of the gums lamina propria on a background of increasing microvasculature area. It was determined significantly increased protein and glycoprotein content in the gums tissues with increased levels of nitrogen oxide metabolites.
Authors: Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Purwati, Damayanti Tinduh, Nanang Hari Wibowo
Abstract: A torn in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) caused by interference with the proprioceptive function of the knee joint can result in decreased function and other joint structure degradation that ultimately affect to daily activities. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in recent studies to improve the healing of soft tissue injuries because it contains a lot of growth factor. This study was to determine the effect of platelet rich plasma in ACL reconstruction surgery. ACL reconstruction patients either with or without PRP were evaluated with Joint Position Sense (JPS) and Threshold To Detection of Passive Motion (TTDPM) measurements and the results were compared. From this study found 20 patients who had ACL reconstruction performed either with or without PRP. The test results showed statistically significant differences JPS in patients with ACL reconstruction who given PRP and not, at angle of 30˚ (p=0,037) and 45˚ (p=0,034). It also obtained a non-significant difference TTDPM in both groups (p=0,172). The conclusion obtained in this study is the addition of platelet rich plasma in patients with ACL reconstruction of knee joint can improve the function of JPS at an angle of 30˚ and 45˚, while the function of TTDPM is not increased significantly.

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