Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 31

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Authors: Żaneta Garczyk, Sebastian Stach, Ştefan Ţălu, Dinara Sobola, Zygmunt Wróbel
Abstract: This paper analyses the data stereometric of three samples obtained using the atomic force microscope. The data concern the two butterfly species: Euploea mulciber (known as “Striped Blue Crow”) and Morpho didius (also named as “Giant Blue Morpho”). These species have a strong correlation color wings of the angle of incidence of light. This is structural coloration and it depends on the surface topography. Here we present a method for the topography evaluation. A script created in Matlab software version R2012 by MathWorks® was used for segmentation data stereometric and analysis of localized motifs occurring on the surface of the samples. An analysis of the data using stereometric software MountainsMap® Premium version 7.3.7746 by Digital Surf was made to compare the results obtained using the script developed in Matlab, for identification of all sorts of motifs, such as peaks, pits, or irregular shapes in correlation with the surface statistical parameters. The analysis of motifs is essential when choosing the appropriate technique for imaging the 3-D (three-dimensional) microtextured features of butterfly wings surfaces. This stereometric analysis proves to be an effective method that can be successfully used for estimation of micro- and nano- topography by processing of AFM data
Authors: Artit Hutem, Aunchana Chansrakaew, Tanaporn Sornchai, Supaporn Hutem
Abstract: In this research paper, we will develop a theory about the mathematical and physics models for the velocity-time of Usain Bolt in the 100 metres sprint during the Beijing olympic games 2008, Berlin world championships in Athletics 2009, and London olympic in 2012. We will use data from Usain Bolt’s distance, velocity and time as shown in K. Mackata and M. Antti research study of Usain Bolt’s kinematic parameter and will analyze them using mathematical and physics models in order to formulate a theoretical equations showing the power vitality of the sprinter value and his speed endurance as well. We will also use the Introduction to Sport Biomechanics by Roger Bartlett (pp.83-92) which covers the study of the hypothetical center of mass velocity time-dependent. And the comparison of the applied force is time-dependent oscillator which are all obtained from the mathematical and physics models1 and the applied force is time-dependent oscillator in mathematical and physics models2 and the experimentation done by in figure (1)-(3)
Authors: Jie Yuan Qian, Shi Rui Shao, Ying Yue Zhang, Sergey Popik, Yao Dong Gu
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the kinematics and kinetics of wearing of the different height of shoe toe box walking and jogging. A total of 20 normal males participated in the experiment controlling the jogging speed of 8 km/h and the walking speed of 4 km/h. The Vicon three dimension motions analysis system was taken to capture the kinematics of lower extremity while jogging and walking text. The Novel Pedar-X insole plantar pressure measurement system was utilized to collect the plantar pressure in specific anatomical areas. The function of toe box regions is analyzed through the comparison of plantar pressure parameters and kinematic results. They performed both texts under four conditions which is common sneaker (A), sneaker of Marathon (B), flat sneaker (C) and specially customized sneaker (D). During the walking phase, the ankle of C showed significantly less peak plantar flexion than other shoes. During the jogging phase, the ankle for D showed significantly larger peak flexion than other shoes, and the C is smallest. Meanwhile, the ankle and knee of all shoes expressed different changes in the sagittal and frontal plane. The D of peak pressure and pressure-time integral are obviously higher than other shoes in BT and LFF area. The contact time of D and other shoes exist significant differences in jogging. Compare to wearing different height of shoe box sneakers, the D shoe wearer may enhance BT and forefoot areas power and proprioceptive, to improve athletic performance and to keep balance. The C shoe does not fit sport because it’s having more larger plantar pressure in most of the foot region than other shoes, easy to cause the injury of lower limbs. The A and B shoes are no sensible difference in jogging and walking.
Authors: Amanpreet Kaur, Amod Kumar, Ravinder Agarwal
Abstract: The wavelet transform is an accurate, efficient and efficacious method to improve the quality of the myoelectric signal. Classification of the signal from upper limb using Surface Electromyogram (SEMG) signal has been the matter of extensive research. Number of methods and algorithms have been described by researchers to classify biomedical signals. The main aim of this paper to extract the different coefficient values from the given SEMG data by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Afterward, random forest machine learning algorithm was used to identify the different shoulder movement of an upper limb amputee. The combination of wavelet coefficients and random forest exhibited the best performance with 99.2% accuracy for the classification of different shoulder motions. It was found that the different motion can be identified accurately and provide the fundamental information to develop an efficient prosthetic device.
Authors: Noureddine Djebbar, B. Serier, Bel Abbès Bachir Bouiadjra
Abstract: Stable osseointegration between implant threads and the surrounding marginal bone provides the mechanical base of an implant for daily chewing activity. The contact area of implant-bone interfaces and the concentrated stresses on the marginal bones are principal concerns of implant designers. In this work we numerically analyze by the finite element method the distribution of the equivalent stress and their level in the bone the most fragile element of the dental prosthesis. Each set of the model contained a crown, framework, abutment, implant and bone, subjected to variable dynamic loading according to time.
Authors: Rizki Firsta Wahyuliswari, Siswanto, Prihartini Widiyanti
Abstract: Polysulfone is synthetic polymer widely used as basic material for dialyzer membrane and hydrophobic so it tends to cause fouling. Cellulose acetate is non-synthetic, hydrophilic polymer which has low tendency of fouling and has good thermal stability and permeability so it is considered as alternative material for hollow fiber dialyzer. A proper hollow fiber can be achieved by setting a proper temperature of coagulation bath along the spinning process. This research aims to understand the effect of coagulation bath temperature variations on the physical characteristic such as pore size, tensile strength, swelling rate and creatinine clearance of cellulose acetate – D-glucose monohydrate hollow fibers. Hollow fibers were fabricated using spinneret at temperature variations 5°C, 10°C, 15°C dan 20°C. Physical characteristics were estimated by doing morphology test using SEM, tensile test, swelling test towards Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and filtration test towards creatinine. Result revealed that the hollow fibers from 5°C coagulation bath temperature gives the best characteristic and performance with tensile strength 27,421 N mm-2, pore size 0,0295–0,0858 nm, swelling rate 4,18%, elongation rate 4,4 %, flux rate 1,6032–1,7956 mL cm-2 min-1 and creatinine clearance rate 40,14–48,30% so it is potential to be applied as dialyzer membrane.
Authors: Dian Marta Rizkawati, Izak R. Djony, Prihartini Widiyanti
Abstract: The wound dressing which have good mechanical properties, non toxic, anti inflammation, anti infection and has potency to accelerate wound healing are important to be found. This study aimed to determine the effect of glutaraldehyde on the human amniotic membrane cross linking, tensile strength, material toxicity and tissue response to a biomaterial which could be applied as an ideal wound dressing. Human amniotic membrane used was derived from one individual and was obtained from the Biomaterial Center and Tissue Bank in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya Indonesia while the glutaraldehyde used was a commercial product. The wound dressing from human amniotic membrane-glutaraldehyde was made by dipping the human amniotic membrane with a solution of different variation of glutaraldehyde compositions, ie 0:25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 1.25%. The results of the research also found the pH measurements on human amnion membrane-glutaraldehyde according to skin balance range (4.0-7.0) by adding 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 1.25% glutaraldehid to human amniotic membrane. FTIR characterization test results indicate the change of intensity of tertiary amine group (C-N) in the human amniotic membrane–glutaraldehyde by 0,25%, 0,5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 1.25% glutaraldehyde concentration. The best concentration of glutaraldehyde to be applied as wound dressing was at a concentration of 1%, which was based on the results of tensile test 26.67 MPa, percentage of living cell in the cytotoxicity assay of 113.483%, and Histopathology Anatomy test that shows 100% of wound re-epithelialization on the mice’s skins.
Authors: Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Ferdiansyah, Purwati
Abstract: Cartilage defect has become serious problem for orthopaedic surgeon and patients because of its difficult healing that might occur when articular cartilage damage never reach subchondral layer. In this study, we used combination of freeze dried bovine cartilage (FDBC) scaffold, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and platelet rich plasma (PRP) composite (SMPC) implanted in full thickness cartilage defect. This study is to explain its regeneration mechanism. This is true experimental research with post-test only control group design using New Zealand White Rabbit. 50 rabbits is divided into three groups of SMPC, BM-MSCs and FDBC. 37 rabbits evaluated after twelve weeks. Histopathologic examination showed the number of chondrocytes, collagen thickness and cartilage width are highest on SMPC group. Immunohistochemical examination showed SMPC group has the highest number of chondroprogenitor cells express FGF-2R, Sox-9, and MAPK. Brown Forsythe test resulted in significant increase the number of chondrocytes (p=0,010), collagen thickness (p=0,000), and cartilage surface width (p=0,015), and increase FGF-2R (p=0,000), MAPK (p=0,000), and Sox-9 (p=0,000) on SMPC group. Using path analysis, there is strong influence from FGF-2R, MAPK, and Sox-9 to the increase of chondrocytes, collagen thickness, and cartilage surface width. Hence, SMPC implantation mechanism of full thickness cartilage defect regeneration can be explained.
Authors: Y.G. Romanenko
Abstract: model of chronic gastritis and duodenitis was conducted in 48 immature Wistar rats both gender by intragastric injection of medical bile. Control group consisted of 10 animals. After approximation model of the gastritis and duodenitis rats were divided into five subgroups: the 1st subgroup (before treatment, 9 rats), subgroup 2 (10 animals) received the antioxidant, subgroup 3 (11 animals) – received NO donator, subgroup 4 (10 animals) - received an antioxidant and NO donator, subgroup 5 (8 animals) – received the antioxidant, NO donator and calcium carbonate. In rats with gastritis and duodenitis was observed redistribution of stable metabolites of nitric oxide: decreasing level in the gingival homogenates and increasing in the blood plasma. Level of malondialdehyde and aldehyddehydrogenase in the gingival tissue increased, and in the blood plasma decreased, on a background of catalase activation; content of ketone phenilhydrazone remained in the level of control group. Decreasing markers of oxidation lipids and proteins in the blood plasma, on a background of increasing levels of catalase and nitric oxide metabolites (in 14 times), indicates about a key role of NO in the antioxidant protection of organism in a case of disease.Application of antioxidant could not impact on the indicators of oxidation lipids and proteins. It had been shown decreasing content of the nitric oxide metabolites in the gingival tissues and blood plasma. Drug correction with donator of nitric oxide have to increase markers of oxidation lipids and proteins in the gingival tissues, on a background of high catalase activity and low levels of nitric oxide metabolites. In the blood plasma content of nitric oxide metabolites was higher, which indicated about an active inflammatory process in the stomach and duodenum mucosa. Indicators of the protein molecules fragmentation and malondialdehyde were not differ from those before treatment. Level of catalase was in two times higher, than in the control group, but level of superoxide dismutase was decreased. Complex of antioxidant and donator of nitric oxide helped to stabilise the indicators of oxidation lipids and proteins, although level of nitric oxide metabolites in the gingiva was significantly decreased. Application complex from the antioxidant, donator of nitric oxide and calcium carbonate at the treatment of chronic gastritis and duodenitis restored an oxidative-antioxidative status in the blood plasma and gingival tissues, increasing the production of nitric oxide to a level in the control group.
Authors: Purwati, Sony Wibisono, Ari Sutjahjo, T.J. Askandar, Fedik Abdul Rantam
Abstract: Recent progress in diabetes mellitus therapy has focused attention on generation of surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived adult tissues. In this study, we conducted a phase I clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in various age between 30-79 years old who were treated with autologous adipose-derived MSCs transplantation. MSCs injected into diabetic patients through catheterization then we measured levels of fasting blood glucose, 2h postprandial blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide pre and post stem cell transplantation, also HbA1c. Levels of blood glucose (fasting and 2h post prandial) and insulin were absolutely decreasing after injection. Meanwhile, level of c-peptide was increasing after injection. Level of HbA1c was significantly decreasing after 3 months injection. Thus, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment tertiary failure diabetes mellitus type 2 was better than insulin treatment only.

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