Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 33

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Authors: Le Van Tuan, Kengo Ohnishi, Hiroshi Otsuka, Yukio Agarie, Shinichiro Yamamoto, Akihiko Hanafusa
Abstract: Ground reaction forces (GRF) and pressure beneath the foot prosthesis are the main parameters used in biomechanical analysis to estimate the joint load and evaluate the quality of the prosthesis, especially with transfemoral patient who have amputation that occurs through the femur. The information of ground reaction forces and beneath pressure of foot prosthesis is conventionally achieved using dynamics method or the experimental method. However, these methods have some limitation for a prosthetist and designers to choose the best prosthesis solution for transfemoral patient. In the dynamics method, the deformation of the foot prosthesis and the variation in the shape of the residual limb in the socket is neglected and the center of gravity of the prosthesis component is estimated; thus, the method is less accurate because the prosthesis consists of several parts with different materials and shapes. The experimental method involves time and cost in setting-up the device. Data can be acquired only after the patient wears the prosthesis. In this study, the authors were implemented a finite element (FE) method for computing the GRF, and the pressure beneath the foot prosthesis and its distribution. The finite element model of all components of transfemoral of the prosthesis was created. The ground reaction forces, beneath pressure of foot prosthesis and other parameters were disclosed after solving by explicit solver of LS-Dyna software. The results of the vertical ground reaction forces exhibit consistently similar data between the simulation and the measurement. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 between them denotes their correspondence. The reaction force at knee joint, distribution of beneath pressure of foot prosthesis were included in results and discussion. These results can be used for prosthesis design and optimization; they can assist the prosthetist in selecting a comfortable prosthesis for the patient and in improving the rehabilitation training.
Authors: Samir Zahaf, Said Kebdani
Abstract: Orthopedic fixation devices are widely used in treatment of spinal diseases. It is expected that application of dynamic stabilization confers valuable movement possibility besides its main role of load bearing. Comparative investigation between pedicle screw model rigid fixation and (B Dyne, Elaspine, Bioflex, Coflexe rivet) models dynamic fixation systems may elucidate the efficacy of each design. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of five fixation systems mounted on L4-L5 motion segment. In this numerical study, a 3D precious model of L4, L5 and their intervertebral disc has been employed based on CT images. five fixation devices have been also implanted internally to the motion segment. Finite element method was used to evaluate stress distribution in the disc and determine the overall displacement of the segment as a measure of movement possibility. The results show that The Coflex rivet implantation can provide stability in all motions and reduce disc annulus stress at the surgical segment (L4-L5), on the other hand, Maximum stress in the disc has been observed in dynamic systems but within the safe range. The greater movement of the motion segment has been also appeared in dynamic fixations. Existence of the fixation systems reduced the stress on the intervertebral disc which might be exerted in intact cases. Use of the fixation devices can considerably reduce the load on the discs and prepare conditions for healing of the injured ones. Furthermore, dynamic modes of fixation confer possibility of movement to the motion segments in order to facilitate the spinal activities.
Authors: Saida Ghoggali, Outtas Toufik, Saber Latrèche
Abstract: A successful osseointegration involves the simultaneous optimization of the primary stability of the implant and the minimization of interfacial stresses bone - implant. In this context, the modeling of these stresses reports a great interest for researchers in last decades.The aim of this work is to study the effects of geometric parameters of a new model of titanium dental implant on the evolution of interfacial stresses bone /implant. For this, a dental implant of the second premolar in the lower jaw was considered, with different diameters, thread pitches and different thread forms. The profile of the interfacial stresses was presented for each case study, the results show a great similarity in the areas concerned, cortical bone, threaded region and cancellous bone, with the results obtained in the literature for other types of geometries.
Authors: Chitaranjan Mahapatra, Rohit Manchanda
Abstract: Urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) generates spontaneous electrical activities due to stochastic nature of purinergic neurotransmitter release from the parasympathetic nerve. The stochastic nature of the purinergic neurotransmitter release was represented by a simplified ‘point-conductance’ model to mimic in vitro-like electrical activities in UBSM cell. The point-conductance was represented by the independent synaptic conductance described by the stochastic random-walk processes and injected into a single-compartment model of mouse UBSM cell. This model successfully evoked irregular spontaneous depolarizations (SDs) and spontaneous action potential (sAP) as the properties of in vitro-like electrical activities in UBSM cells. The model mimics the T- and L-type Ca2+ ion channel blocker by setting their respective conductance to zero. We also found that the point-conductance model modulates the sAP properties by adding background activity.
Authors: Sutrisno Ibrahim, Sohaib Majzoub
Abstract: Epilepsy is type of neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that may cause injury to self and others. The ability to predict seizure before its occurrence, so that counter measures are considered, would improve the quality of life of epileptic patients. This research work proposes an adaptive seizure prediction approach based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals analysis. We use cross-correlation to estimate synchronization between EEG channels. Abnormal synchronization between brain regions may reveal brain condition and functionality. Two EEG synchronization baselines, normal and pre-seizure, are used to continuously monitor sliding windows of EEG recording to predict the upcoming seizure. The two baselines are continuously updated using distance-based method based on the most recent prediction outcome. Up to 570 hours continuous EEG recording taken from CHB-MIT dataset is used for validating the proposed method. An overall of 84% sensitivity (46 out of 55 seizures are correctly predicted) and 63% specificity are achieved with one hour prediction horizon. The proposed method is suitable to be implemented in mobile or embedded device which has limited processing resources due to its simplicity.
Authors: Kazeem Oyeyemi Oyebode
Abstract: Image denoising provides an opportunity to minimize unwanted signal from any image in order to improve its interpretation by either human or machine. In the medical context, image denoising serves as a critical element of image processing as it helps to improve the quality of data presented for manual or automatic diagnosis. While there exist a number of image denoising methods such as the median, diffusion and Gaussian filtering, selecting a suitable one for cell segmentation may be challenging as one is tasked with ensuring adopted denoising method preserves critical object structures, like boundaries, while at the same time minimizing noise. In this paper, we discuss two popular denoising methods (diffusion filtering and Gaussian filtering) and investigates their significance, in improving the accuracy of segmented cell images, both individually and by their combinations. Experiment carried out on public and private datasets of cell images indicates an improved segmentation accuracy when cell images are first denoised with the combination of diffusion and Gaussian filtering as against individual denoising methods.
Authors: G. Sandhya, Kande Giri Babu, T. Satya Savithri
Abstract: The automatic detection of brain tissues such as White Matter (WM), Gray Matter (GM), and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) from the MR images of the brain using segmentation is of immense interest for the early detection and diagnosing various brain-related diseases. MR imaging technology is one of the best and most reliable ways of studying the brain. Segmentation of MR images is a challenging task due to various artifacts such as noise, intensity inhomogeneity, partial volume effects and elemental texture of the image. This work proposes a region based, efficient and modern energy minimization process called as Anisotropic Multiplicative Intrinsic Component Optimization (AMICO) for the brain image segmentation in the presence of noise and intensity inhomogeneity to separate different tissues. This algorithm uses an efficient Anisotropic diffusion filter to decrease the noise. The denoised image gets segmented after the correction of intensity inhomogeneity by the MICO algorithm. The algorithm decomposes the MR brain image as two multiplicative intrinsic components, called as the component of the true image which represents the physical properties of the brain tissue and the component of bias field that is related to intensity inhomogeneity. By optimizing the values of these two components using an efficient energy minimization technique, correction of intensity inhomogeneity and segmentation of the tissues can be achieved simultaneously. Performance evaluation and the comparison with some existing methods have validated the remarkable performance of AMICO in terms of efficiency of segmentation of brain images in the presence of noise and intensity inhomogeneity.
Authors: Adanti Wido Paramadini, Prihartini Widiyanti, Djoni Izak Rudyardjo
Abstract: Traffic accident is the highest cause of head injury. In the field of neurosurgery, it is closely related to the defect of duramater (outer layer of the brain). This study aims to perform artificial duramater synthesis from bacteria cellulose that is composited with collagen in order to find the precise composition. Bacteria cellulose was synthesized by fertilizing Acetobacter xylinum bacteria into coconut water. In addition, bacteria cellulose pellicle membrane immersed into collagen solution with various concentration such as 0.4% w/v, 0.5% w/v, 0.6% w/v and 0.7% w/v. The dried sample was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), tensile tester, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and swelling test procedure. Result showed that the best sample was ‘Sample A’ (bacteria cellulose-collagen 0.4% w/v) that obtained 8% elongation and 185 μm for the average thickness. Based on the entire result, the biocomposite of bacteria celluose-collagen has a high potential as a candidate of artificial duramater.
Authors: Nur Aini Mulyadi, Noorma Rosita, Helmy Yusuf
Abstract: The present study focuses on characterization the physical properties of liposome formulation which was dispersed in HPMC matrix and lyophilized in the presence of disaccharides. The lyophilized formulations featured cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) to produce dry solid and overcome limitations in terms of detrimental phase separation in phospholipid membranes during production process. Disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose, have been reported to protect phospholipid membranes during drying, while HPMC was used as dispersed matrix to inhibit recrystallization of disaccharide. Their physical properties were characterized including their morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), crystallinity using x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and solid phase separation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). On the basis of these evaluations it was found that the presence of sucrose and HPMC in the formulation showed a miscible mixture and relatively less crystalline-forming properties compared to those using lactose, thus potentially construct a stable dried liposomal formulation. The present study reveals prospective advantages of using combination of sucrose and HPMC in development of dried–DDA liposomal formulation.
Authors: Y.G. Romanenko
Abstract: Chronic gastritis and duodenitis at the children, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, carried out by violations in a cellular link of immunity: lymphocytosis, imbalance of subpopulations T-cells with reduction of absolute CD3+, CD4+ - lymphocytes, increasing of absolute measures CD8+ - and CD16+ - lymphocytes. Increasing content of B - lymphocytes, maintenance of IgG and IgM in the peripheral venues blood demonstrates activation of a humoral link on the background of oppression of T - cellular immunity. In the peripheral blood had been shown increase of phagocyte activity of neutrophils, amount of highly active cells, level of the circulating immune complexes.

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