Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 34

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Authors: Ying Yue Zhang, Gusztáv Fekete, Justin Fernandez, Yao Dong Gu
Abstract: To determine the influence of the unstable sole structure on foot kinematics and provide theoretical basis for further application.12 healthy female subjects walked through a 10-meter experimental channel with normal speed wearing experimental shoes and control shoes respectively at the gait laboratory. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the forefoot, rearfoot and hallux during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating with Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Compare to contrast group, participants wearing experimental shoes demonstrated greater peak forefoot dorsiflexion, forefoot supination and longer halluces plantar flexion time in support phase. Additionally, participants with unstable sole structure also demonstrated smaller peak forefoot plantarflexion, rearfoot dorsiflexion and range of joint motion in sagittal plane and frontal plane.. The difference mainly appeared in sagittal and frontal plane. With a stimulation of unstable, it may lead to the reinforcement of different flexion between middle and two ends of the foot model. The greater forefoot supination is infered that the unstable element structure may affect the forefoot motion on the frontal plane and has a control effect to strephexopodia people. The stimulation also will reflexes reduce the range of rearfoot motion in sagittal and frontal planes to control the gravity center of the body and keep a steady state in the process of walking.
Authors: Wan Azani Mustafa, Haniza Yazid, Wahida Kamaruddin
Abstract: Segmentation of blood vessels in the retinal is a crucial step in the diagnosis of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper presents a supervised method for automatic segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method based on a hybrid combination between Gray-Level and Moment Invariant techniques. There are four steps involved, whereas preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and post-processing. In the preprocessing, three stages are performed include vessel central light reflex removal, background homogenization, and vessel enhancement. The 7-D vector feature extraction was performed to compute that compose of gray-level and moment invariants-based features for pixel representation. The decision tree is used for classification step that characterized the pixel based on vessels and non-vessels. The final step is the post-processing which will remove the small artifacts appears after classification process. The proposed method was compared to the Vascular Tree method and Morphological method. Based on the objective evaluation, the proposed method achieved (sensitivity = 98.589, specificity = 55.544 and accuracy = 96.197).
Authors: Cindy Astelia Ramadhan Suparman, Endah Purwanti, Prihartini Widiyanti
Abstract: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is a disease which is endemic in most districts / cities still becomes a public health problem in Indonesia. The awareness of people to the dengue viral infection and its symptoms are needed to decrease the fatality of this disease. The community need to be known the symptoms thereby they could intervened and prevent from falling in to worse condition. This study was conducted to design system which could diagnose the onset of the disease with 3 levels of possibilities namely Grade 1 Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Grade 2 Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, and Non Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. The system is build based on patient medical records of Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo General Hospital, Mojokerto, East Java using the Naive Bayes method. The method of this study including several steps such as collecting data, preprocessing data, designing database, interface design, calculation and processing data, classification and analyzing data and evaluating application. Determining the results of the application diagnose requires posterior calculation which searches the highest values in three degrees as the results of the initial diagnose. The application as a device for an early diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever has a high accuracy value of 97% out of the 30 tested data. The homogenization of the training data and the test data by sex and age can be considered in future research.
Authors: William Arthur, Elsie Effah Kaufmann
Abstract: This paper proposes and presents the proof of concept for an improvised device adapted from the condom tamponade used for controlling atonic primary postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings. The device has been designed to address the setbacks of the conventional condom tamponade. The setbacks of the condom tamponade were assessed. Using the systematic engineering design process, a device was designed to address the setbacks of the condom tamponade. The device comprises an inflation/deflation system, blood drainage system and clamping system. Results from testing show that for an inexperienced user, the device has quicker inflation (3.36 ± 1.70 minutes/ 500 ml) and faster set-up time (3.60 ± 1.50 minutes), as compared to the conventional condom tamponade. The clamping system of the device also ensures effective control of fluid dynamics and prevents backflow. The device, however, was not tested on human subjects to prove its efficacy for actual treatment of patients. The device also can be easily and quickly set-up and operated by frontline healthcare providers with limited expertise, in resource-poor settings. It has further been designed for safety (use of biocompatible materials and elimination of sharp edges for the parts expected to have direct contact with the uterus).
Authors: Harrison T. Pajovich, Alexandra M. Brown, Andrew M. Smith, Sara K. Hurley, Jessica R. Dorilio, Nicole M. Cutrone, Ipsita A. Banerjee
Abstract: In this work, for the first time, chlorogenic acid, a natural phytochemical, was conjugated to a lactoferrin derived antimicrobial peptide sequence RRWQWRMKKLG to develop a self-assembled template. To mimic the components of extracellular matrix, we then incorporated Type I Collagen, followed by a sequence of aggrecan peptide (ATEGQVRVNSIYQDKVSL) onto the self-assembled templates for potential applications in ligament tissue regeneration. Mechanical properties and surface roughness were studied and the scaffolds displayed a Young’s Modulus of 169 MP and an average roughness of 72 nm respectively. Thermal phase changes were studied by DSC analysis. Results showed short endothermic peaks due to water loss and an exothermic peak due to crystallization of the scaffold caused by rearrangement of the components. Biodegradability studies indicated a percent weight loss of 27.5 % over a period of 37 days. Furthermore, the scaffolds were found to adhere to fibroblasts, the main cellular component of ligament tissue. The scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and displayed actin stress fibers indicative of cell motility and attachment. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis were also promoted, demonstrating increased expression and deposition of collagen and proteoglycans. Additionally, the scaffolds exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermis bacteria, which is beneficial for minimizing biofilm formation if potentially used as implants. Thus, we have developed a novel biocomposite that may open new avenues to enhance ligament tissue regeneration.
Authors: P. Amaravathy, T.S. Sampath Kumar
Abstract: A simple chemical conversion coating was adopted to deposit zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) coating and strontium doped ZCP (SZCP) coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy to induce biocompatibility and reduce the degradation rate. The surface morphology, chemical composition and functional groups of the coating were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy respectively. SZCP coating formed at 20 min deposition time produced crack free surface with a high degree of crystallinity with barrier property, which ultimately retards the dissolution of magnesium in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy was improved by SZCP coating as evident from hydrogen evolution test (HET). Cytotoxicity evaluation with L969 cells showed that Sr doped ZCP coatings showed less toxicity on resorbable magnesium alloys.
Authors: Abdelyamine Boukhobza, Mourad Brioua, Smail Benaicha, Kamel Fedaoui
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine a premature breakage of two compression plates for fixing broken bones with different patients for the period of their recovery. Each compression plate's breakage can induce grave consequences such as a new surgery, unexpected undesired complications and a prolonged healing time. The investigation of the compression plate breakage causes required an examination of the chemical composition and steel hardness, metallographic examination as well as that of the compression plate breakage surface by means of macroscopic and microscopic observations using microscope. On the origin of the results it can be established that the breakage was caused by high static load.
Authors: Mihaela Păpușa Vasiliu, Liliana Sachelarie, Laura Ecaterina Romila, Ardeshir Shardi, Carmen Stadoleanu, Daniela Ivona Tomita
Abstract: The dimensional stability of dental impression materials is one of the variables that contribute to the accuracy or to the inexactitude of dentures. The rheological properties of several dental impression materials were determined by amplitude and frequency sweep tests. Deformation, storage modulus G’, loss modulus G” and complex viscosity η* were studied for each sample. Moreover, the texture, the stability of the shape, the capacity of distribution on different surfaces and the stability to storage for a long period of time were investigated. All these samples, characterized by a gel structure with G’>G”, are suitable as impression materials. Irreversible hydro-colloids) may be used for different kind of impressions because of their fidelity and elasticity; they also present medium time elasticity and may be easily prepared.
Authors: Yamina Chelahi Chikr, Benali Boutabout, Ali Merdji, Kheira Bouzouina
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a new three-dimensional model of an osseointegrated molar dental prosthesis and to carry out finite element analysis to evaluate stress distributions and intensities in the bone and in the components of dental prosthesis under three loads (corono-apical, distal-mesial and buccal-lingual) were applied to the top of the occlusal face of the prosthesis crown. The interfacial stresses were also determined inside and outside of the threading when the dental prosthesis system was subjected to one of three masticatory loads. All materials used in the models were considered to be isotropic, homogeneous and linearly elastic. The elastic properties, loads and constraints used in the model were taken from published data. In this study, the stress concentration occurred around the threaded dental implant neck. Thus, this area should be preserved clinically in order to maintain the bone–implant interface structurally and functionally.
Authors: Endang W. Bachtiar, Fatma S. Dewi, Ahmad Aulia Yusuf, Rahmi Ulfiana
Abstract: This is preliminary study in order to investigate the effect of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on bone regeneration in an animal model. New Zealand rabbits were used as animal model. The critical defect was created in femoral bone and transplantation of DPSCs applied into bone defect. A colorimetric assay was used to detect ALP level in rabbit’s serum. Bone tissue regeneration was evaluated by histological analysis. In the 2nd week, the treated rabbit show increasing in the activity of ALP (157,925 μU) compared to control rabbit (155,361 μU). This increasing trend continues significantly in DPSCs rabbit (169.750 μU) compared to control rabbit (160.406) after 4 weeks. Histological evaluation revealed that the amount of bone lamellae and osteocytes were filled the defect area of DPSCs treated rabbit. Conclusions: Transplantation of DPSCs accelerating bone regeneration by raising ALP level and forming new bone tissue.

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