Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 38

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Authors: Suo Di Xu, Zhi Qiang Liang, Yu Wei Liu, Gusztáv Fekete
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical performances, running stability of habitually barefoot (BR) and shod runners (SR) during barefoot jogging and running. Ten healthy male subjects, 5 habitually shod runners and 5 habitually barefoot runners, from two different ethnics participated in this study. Subjects performed jogging (2m/s) and running (4m/s) along a 10-m runway. Three-dimensional lower-limb kinematics, ground reaction force, center of pressure (COP) and contact time (CT), were collected during testing. During jogging and running, all participants adopted rear-foot strike pattern, SR had larger VALR. SR showed significantly larger lower-limb range of motion (ROM) in sagittal plane, significantly larger hip abduction and opposite knee ROM in frontal plane, as well as significantly larger ankle internal rotation in horizontal plane. All participants’ CT showed decreased trend with running speed up; and SR was significantly longer than BR; BR and SR in COP showed different trajectories, especially forefoot and rearfoot areas. Habitually barefoot and shod runner from different ethnics still exist significant differences in lower-extremity ROM; and different foot morphological of participants is an important influential factor for these variations.
Authors: Olurotimi Adeleye, Augustine Eloka, Gbeminiyi Sobamowo
Abstract: The outcome of most implant failures is tragic. There is an increasing need to reduce the rate of implant failure. While there has been a lot of progress regarding this problem, a lot still needs to be done. The behaviour of biomaterials had been represented using linear models. Linear models failed to capture some certain behaviours in materials due to the nonlinear nature of biomaterials. More work has been done in an attempt to represent the deformation of these biomaterials using non-linear models, which realised success to a degree. However, providing accurate solutions to these models became a problem. Here, An efficient approximate analytical method, differential transformation method (DTM) is provided for prediction of biomaterial deformation. The results of the solutions are found to be in excellent agreements with the results of the numerical methods. It was observed that at high viscosity, the material exhibit very high resistance to deformation and as it decreases, the material allows more deformation, for longer periods of time. Keywords : Biomaterials; Viscoelasticity; deformation; Differential Transformation Method;
Authors: Siti Nurul Aqmariah Mohd Kanafiah, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, Wan Azani Mustafa, Zeehaida Mohamed, Shazmin Aniza Abdul Shukor, Haniza Yazid, Z.R. Yahya
Abstract: Malaria appears to be one of the main reasons for detrimental health issue at the global scale that is responsible for approximately half a million deaths every year. As the cases of malaria seem to escalate at an annual rate, it is vital to provide a rapid and accurate diagnosis through manual microscopic assessment in the attempt to control the spread of malaria. Nevertheless, varied staining steps and noise disruptions can cause inaccurate diagnosis due to wrong interpretation. Hence, to address such issues, this study investigated the performance upon removing background noise and the method of correcting illumination that has an impact upon segmentation for a computer-assisted diagnostic system. The findings display that the technique of based on Otsu threshold and statistic data used to enhance the contrast image as to determine cells infected by the malaria parasite, in comparison to other methods. In fact, this method was tested on 450 malaria images, which consisted of P. Vivax, P. Falciparum, and P. Knowlesi species at the stages of trophozoite, schizont, and gametocyte. As a result, the HSE approach yielded 1.31 for Global Contrast Factor (GCF), while 10.56 for Signal Noise Ratio (SNR).
Authors: Ista Damayanti, Benny Syariefsyah Latief, Abdul Latif, Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto, Sugeng Supriadi, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar Latief
Abstract: Magnesium alloys have shown potential as biodegradable metallic materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery applications due to their degradability. Biodegradable magnesium are advantageous over existing biodegradable materials such as polymers, ceramics and bioactive glasses in load-bearing applications where sufficient strength and Young’s modulus close to that of the bone are required.
Authors: Adil Bouregba, Adeljebbar Diouri
Abstract: The aim of this study is the synthesis and investigation of bioactive response of acrystalline silicophosphate.A monophasic silicocarnotite was elaborated by solid state reaction from a mixture of beta-tricaliciumphosphate and dicalcium silicate based on mussel shells according to the diagram of system Ca3(PO4 )2 –Ca2SiO4, at 65 % and 35% respectively , these starting materials are heated up to 1450 °C to obtain a monophasic silicocaronitite. The obtained result probed that the main crystalline phase which was detected and recognized in the heated sample at 1400 and 1450 °C was a well-crystallized silicocarnotite. The test of bioactivity of silicocarnotite in artificial saliva causes the appearance of a reaction layer on the materials surface after 4 hours soaking and growth up during 30 days.This layer is constituted of a biphasic mixture of Si–Ca–P–H material, silicated hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite phase are the mainly developing ones with increasing soaking time.The analysis and characterization of the precipitated appearing on the material surface has confirmed experimentally the in vitro bioactivity of silicocarnotite monophasic material.
Authors: Stanley Dickson Kushigbor, Bernard Elorm Adem, Sarah Ofori Wadieh, Grace Kwaku-Anim, Michael Frimpong Danso, Godwin Amenorpe, Elsie Effah Kaufmann
Abstract: Wound dressing is the application of a sterile pad to protect a wound from further harm and promote healing. Over the past decades, various materials including calcium alginate, hydrogel, hydrocolloid and gauze based wound dressing materials have been developed. Unfortunately, shortcomings such as potential allergic reaction, high cost, short shelf life and scarcity have been associated with their use. In developing countries such as Ghana, sterilized gauze is commonly used in wound dressing but it causes scar formation and traumatic pain during removal. In addressing the issues of cost and availability, there may be local materials like cassava (Manihot esculenta) with the ability to aid in wound healing. Cassava is a cheap staple crop grown in Africa which is rich in carbohydrate, fibre and minerals. This research characterized three genotypes of cassava (IITA-TMS-GAEC-160006 (IT6), IITA-TMS-GAEC-160004 (IT4) and Afisiafi (Afi)). These genotypes have been studied in terms of their fibre content, fluid absorption capacity, hemolytic ability and their ability to promote rapid blood coagulation (coagulation time). Fibre samples were soaked in deionized (DI) water and PBS (Phosphate buffered saline) and at different time intervals the swollen samples were weighed. Fibre samples were also brought into contact with human blood and toxicity of samples determined. The results reveal that the rate of absorption of fluid by fibres in both DI water and PBS ranges between 0.66-0.93 g/min and fibres are generally non-toxic to blood cells. The fibre properties were compared with gauze and from these, some genotypes of cassava fibre were recommended for further research towards the design of a wound dressing material.
Authors: Ferdiansyah Mahyudin, Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Mouli Edward, Lukas Widhiyanto, Christopher Anthony Simanjuntak, Hudaya Nikmatullah
Abstract: Ideal bone graft must possess the desirable trait such as osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenesis. Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) provides both osteoconductive and osteoinductive trait. Referring to the tissue engineering principle, the addition of mesenchymal stem cell would add the osteogenic trait to this procedure. The design of this study is experimental using Bovine DBM. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMSCs) and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) were taken from New Zealand white rabbit. There are two groups of treatment, divided into DBM implanted with BMSCs and DBM implanted with ASCs. Each BMSCs and ASCs groups is incubated in the normal and osteogenic culture plate. Evaluation is performed by counting the osteoblast and immunohistochemistry stain using Alkaline Phosphate and Osteocalcin. After 4 weeks of incubation, we found that the osteoblast count in BMSCs groups is higher compared to the ASCs groups in both culture condition (p<0.01) along with Alkaline Phosphate staining (p<0.05), while the Osteocalcin staining showed insignificant differences (p>0.05). This study revealed that xenogenic bovine DBM can act as the potential osteoinductive scaffold for the MSCs to differentiate. The tissue engineering application by combining MSCs and Bovine DBM can be considered as an alternative in managing bone defect cases.
Authors: Fernanda Rocha de Souza, Maria Aparecida Dalboni, Andreas Kaasi, José Osmar Medina de Abreu Pestana, Adalberto Ramón Vieyra, Nádia Karina Guimarães de Souza
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease is a problem that has grown in recent decades worldwide. The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) estimates that the number of patients will double in the next 10 years. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are the treatments used for chronic kidney disease. There is hope in slowing down chronic kidney disease or even stopping its progression. Bioengineering and cell therapy are the main fields in kidney regeneration research using three-dimensional matrices in which cells are cultured, an ideal solution for scarcity organs for kidney transplantation. The difficulty in re-creating a functional kidney due to the complexity of its three-dimensional structure and its composition of different cell types and that can be incorporated in vivo with low immunogenicity is a very difficult task. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to meet the enormous demand for new treatments, developing strategies of tissue engineering on the basis of the decellularization of the porcine kidney performed through a new cell removal protocol. We determined the effective removal of cells by histologic and immunohistochemical analyses, showing the preservation of type IV collagen and fibronectin. Therefore, this method is a quick way to obtain decellularized porcine kidneys for future recellularization studies.

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