Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Vol. 39

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Authors: Ying Yue Zhang, Si Qin Shen, Julien S. Baker, Yao Dong Gu
Abstract: The design of modern footwear seems to have an excessive protective effect on the function of the foot. The purpose of this study was to examine how bionic shoes designed would influence the biomechanical index of gait patterns. There were 10 male subjects underwent gait analysis. Normal sports shoes (NS) with flat-soles were selected as control shoes. The experimental shoes comprising of two elasticity levels were defined as soft-sole bionic shoes (SS) and hard-sole bionic shoes (HS). We examined ground reaction forces, plantar pressures and angles of the ankle, knee and hip during walking and jogging conditions. In comparison with standard shoes, wearing bionic shoes reduced the range of motion in some joints during movement and changed the peak angle in the sagittal, frontal and horizontal planes. Moreover, the vertical average loading rates were significantly larger than that of the standard shoes during jogging. The experimental groups showed larger PP or PTI in the foot regions examined except in the lateral forefoot. Also, increases the in the contact area of the midfoot with decreases in the contact area in heel were also observed. In some regions of the foot, the hard sole of the bionic shoes had a lower pressure than that of the soft sole. These findings indicate that the design of the bionic sole in this study can be used to increase toe scratching ability, increase neuromuscular strength and enhance stability and proprioceptive ability. However, the higher plantar pressures in some regions may increase the risk of overuse injuries. The findings from the study indicate preference for the hard bionic shoes during exercise compared to the soft sole.
Authors: Abdel Hakem Belaghit, Benaoumeur Aour, Mekki Larabi, Salah Mebarki
Abstract: The treatment of aortic aneurysm varies according to each patient. Stent implantation is one of many methods used to stabilize diseases. The information obtained from hemodynamic parameters in the pathological aorta with stent could help doctors in choosing the treatment before the surgery. In this context, the numerical simulation of fluid dynamics is an essential tool that can give us more detailed information that could be exploited by surgeons to find appropriate solutions to some pathologies. In this work, a study of two models of aortas: with and without stent was presented. A comparison of the results of changes in pressures and shear stresses of aortas in systolic and diastolic phases was discussed. The obtained results show a nearly similar tendency of variation for both models, which justifies the effectiveness of the type of stent chosen and its effect on the improvement of the blood flow. The methodology used in this work has revealed the detailed and necessary information for both cases studied and has shown the interest of the numerical tools for diagnosis and surgery.
Authors: Wasim M.K. Helal, Feng Chun Jiang, Dong Yan Shi
Abstract: The treatment process of a tooth every short period has many disadvantages to the dental patient, for instance, wasting time, losing money, and tiring the dental patient. Therefore, selecting the suitable technique for treating the tooth, with increasing the lifetime of the tooth has become more necessary in the daily life of the dental scientists. In the present days, an Endodontic Prefabricated Post (EPP) plays an important vital role in the treatment process of the tooth. Comparisons among von Mises stress, shear stress, and deformation of homogenous cases were investigated in the present work through the finite element analysis (FEA). The effect of EPP material on von Mises stress, shear stress, and deformation components occurred on the dentin in cases of Functionally Graded Endodontic Prefabricated Post (FGEPP), and EPP-homogenous was carried out. After that, the sub-problem approximation method was adopted for determining the optimum material gradient for a FGEPP.
Authors: Ali Mohammad Alqudah, Hiam Alquraan, Isam Abu-Qasmieh, Alaa Al-Badarneh
Abstract: Blindness usually comes from two main causes, glaucoma and diabetes. Robust mass screening is performed for diagnosing, such as screening that requires a cost-effective method for glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy and integrates well with digital medical imaging, image processing, and administrative processes. For addressing all these issues, we propose a novel low-cost automated glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system, based on features extraction from digital eye fundus images. This paper proposes a diagnosis system for automated identification of healthy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Using a combination of local binary pattern features, Gabor filter features, statistical features, and color features which are then fed to an artificial neural network and support vector machine classifiers. In this work, the classifier identifies healthy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy images with an accuracy of 91.1%,92.9%, 92.9%, and 92.3% and sensitivity of 91.06%, 92.6%, 92.66%, and 91.73% and specificity of 89.83%, 91.26%, 91.96%, and 89.16% for ANN, and an accuracy of 90.0%,92.94%, 95.43%, and 97.92% and sensitivity of 89.34%, 93.26%, 95.72%, and 97.93% and specificity of 95.13%, 96.68%, 97.88%, and 99.05% for SVM, based on 5, 10, 15, and 31 number of selected features. The proposed system can detect glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and normal cases with high accuracy and sensitivity using selected features, the performance of the system is high due to using of a huge fundus database.
Authors: Anthony Joseph, Radek Martinek, Radana Kahankova, Rene Jaros, Jan Nedoma, Marcel Fajkus
Abstract: Nowadays, the classic diagnostic method to monitor general foetus well-being using the foetal heart rate conditions, ultrasonic cardiotography, is called into question. A valuable alternative is foetal phonocardiography, a passive and low-cost recording of foetal heart sounds. This paper presents a software which generates synthetic foetal phonocardiographic recordings simulating different recording conditions (by modifying noise level). From a real foetal phonocardiographic recording this software calculates the foetal heart rate. The software was developed using information picked from the literature especially for identifying the waveforms and characteristics of foetal and maternal heart sounds, and the different noises involved in real phonocardiographic recordings. Considering the possibility to simulate different recording situations and physiological or pathological foetal conditions just by modifying some parameters, this simulator software can be useful for testing different foetal-heart-rate extraction algorithms, like the authors’ one. In this paper are presented the different postulates used for developing this software.
Authors: Camtu Suhonen
Abstract: Tooth loss due to dental diseases, caries, and other related pathological conditions has plagued people and is the most prevalent cause of human organ failure. Billions of people have suffered from losing teeth and dental diseases so that generating natural dental tissues are more appreciated than artificial tooth implantation. The aspiration among the dentists to restore this loss biologically is the genesis of the tooth regeneration. Current trends initiate tissue engineering with a concept of functional restoration of tissue and organ defects by the triad of biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and stem cells (Rosa et al. 2012). This paper, therefore, focuses on the significance of nanostructured hybrid materials in the tooth regeneration through tissue engineering. For this purpose, literature was examined and studies on nanomorphological features of stem cells, dental tissues found within the oral area, the signaling molecules utilized in the tissue engineering, and the hybrid scaffolds that guide reconstructions of periodontal tissues were selected for the review. The nanodentistry has been potential, undoubtedly, to achieve almost perfect dental health in the nearest future. However, the success will largely be determined by human requirements and resource supply (technology, economy, and time). Finally, the future and actual potentials of nanotechnologies pertaining tissue engineering will be applied in dentistry (Mitziadis, Woloszyk, & Jimenez-Rojo, 2012). Keywords: Stem cells; scaffolds; nanomaterials; hybrid materials, tissue engineering; dentistry; signaling molecules.
Authors: Shamo Z. Tapdigov, Samira F. Safaraliieva, Patrick Theato, Nizami A. Zeynalov, Dilgam B. Taghiyev, Maria G. Raucci, Mirvari X. Hasanova
Abstract: The quartenizeid chloride derivative of natural polyaminosaccharide chitosan was synthesized in two stages with acetate aldehyde and methyl iodide chemical reaction and ion replacement, which could be soluble in the water and wide pH ranges. The synthesis of the homopolymer was initially carried out with acetate aldehyde in Schiff reaction, and reduction was held on with the presence of NaBH4. The quaternization was accomplished in the acetonitrile medium with methyl iodine by continuous exposure of N2.7-8% quartenized N,N-diethyl, N-methyl chitosan iodine were synthesized with 89-91% yield, obtained by deprotonation of amine groups, with reaction of CH3J and N,N-diethyl chitosan. The ion exchange was carried out at 10% NaCl solution during 24 hours and N,N-diethyl, N-methyl chitosan chloride was obtained. Synthesis was performed with simpler and chemically effective methods compared to previous studies. The structure of product was characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, NMR, SEM, TGA, DTA and elemental analysis was determined. Functional changes in the structure of macromolecules were monitored with NMR and UV-Vis, and it was proved that, the main intermediate product was composed to be N,N-diethyl carbocation carrying >C=N-chromophore group. The increasing percent of carbon in content while alkylation is depeering and the presence of halogenated ions (Cl- or J-) after quaternization were observed. It has been determined that, the solubility of N,N-diethyl,N-methyl chitosan chloride or iodide in water and in pH =1-10 increased frequently. Key words. Chitosan; alkylation; diethylmethyl chitosan iodine; quartenization; UV-Vis; NMR
Authors: Sumorejo Purwati, Lita D. Rahmawati, Dalimunthe Awalia, Fedik A. Rantam, Ugroseno Y. Bintoro
Abstract: There are 80 types of autoimmune diseases (ADs) with some of the same symptoms, but causes are still unclear. The major treatment of ADs is immunosuppressive drugs but these are not effective and associated with substantial toxicities. Stem cell has demonstrated remarkable effectiveness in halting destructive immune response and restoring the body to level of normal function by providing cellular level repair of damage, increasing blood flow, and reducing inflammation. Adipose tissue is one of the most potent and concentrated source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an anti-inflammatory and tissue protecting agent which is promote healing and minimal invasive. This study conducted in 20 patients with ADs (11 women and 9 men) in various age between 22 to 70 years old. Patients treated with autologous adipose-derived MSCs implantation through catheterization. The laboratory analysis result of patients before and after MSCs application in 6 months were measured, include haemoglobin (Hb), leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), protein and blood levels in urine, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP), C3 and C4 complement, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA). MSCs are able to improve the performance of hemoglobin which statistically significant increased (p=0.002). MSCs are able to reduce the inflammatory as shown in the number of leukocytes (p=0.015) and ESR (p=0.031) which statistically significant decreased. MSCs can repair the renal function as shown in no presences of protein and blood in patient’s urine. MSCs are also able to augment the immune response as shown in hsCRP which statistically significant decreased (p<0.001), while C3 and C4 complements statistically significant increased (p<0.001). ANA and anti-dsDNA showed a negative result which means MSCs therapy may give a good response to heal the ADs.
Authors: Heri Suroto, Ameria Pribadi, Dwikora Novembri Utomo, Ferdiansyah Mahyudin, Lukas Widhiyanto
Abstract: Rotator cuff disorders are the most common source of shoulder problems, ranging from mild strain to massive tears. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous blood with platelets concentration above baseline values represents a source of multiple growth factors that promotes tissue repair. This review examines the potential of using PRP to augment rotator cuff repair. Reporting 4 patients with impingement syndrome and supraspinatus tear who underwent decompression acromioplasty and supraspinatus repair augmented with platelet-rich plasma and amniotic membrane. An evaluation was made 3-24 months postoperative using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). Average preoperative pain score is 64%, disability score 54.58%, and total score 58.19%. Average postoperative pain score is 0%, disability score 0.42%, and total score 0.26% (Minimum Detectable Change at 90% confidence for pain score is 18%, disability score 13%, and total score 11%). This result is consequent with research by Luoay Fallouh, stating that improvement is caused by growth factor effects in platelet-rich plasma which promotes soft tissue healing. It can be concluded that platelet-rich plasma and amniotic membrane have promising effects to enhance soft tissue healing in patients with rotator cuff syndrome. Shoulder function is restored with no limitation on daily activity and pain is no longer present.

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