An Overview of Strut-and-Tie Model and its Common Challenges
B-Regions are parts of the structure in which Bernoulli's principle of straight-line strain is used. D-Regions are parts of the structure with a complicated variation in strain. In essence, D-Regions contain the parts of structure which are near to the concentrated forces or steep changes in geometry which are so-called geometrical discontinuities or static discontinuities. Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) is one of the best models to analyse the D-regions. Nevertheless, according to the existing literature, there are still some challenges about STM which are addressed in this paper. STM and its details are investigated to show its common challenges presents some recommendations to overcome these challenges. According to this review, the major challenges in STM are related to the strut effectiveness factor, static uncertainties of STM, strain compatibility, and anchorage requirements in STM. The scope of this research is confined to the two dimensional STM.
M. Panjehpour et al., "An Overview of Strut-and-Tie Model and its Common Challenges", International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, Vol. 8, pp. 37-45, 2012