Molluscan shells is a natural ceramic composite with excellent fracture strength and fracture toughness, which are attributed to their unique microstructures. Sanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on Bivalva shell showed that the shell consists of laminated aragonite and organic layers. These aragonite and organic layers are provided with the scale and characteristics of nanometer. The effect and function of these nanometer structures were analyzed based on Griffith criterion and energy-dissipation idea. The higher fracture strength and fracture roughness of bionanocomposite-molluscan shell were well explained with nanometer viewpoint.