Synthesis and Characterizations of ZnO Nanoparticles for Application in Electromagnetic Detectors
Electromagnetic (EM) waves are able to distinguish between water and hydrocarbons due to their high difference in resistivity value. The method that uses EM technology to explore hydrocarbon is called Seabed Logging (SBL). Due to high demand of hydrocarbons, improvement of this technology is needed. The paper consists of modelling of the prototype of EM transmitter and receiver for hydrocarbons exploration. EM transmitter consists of carbon nanotubes (CNT), aluminium wire with magnetic feeder in toroidal shape. ZnO-CNTs-PVDF composites are used for EM detection. The XRD analysis showed a clear diffraction peak of  plane at 36°C of the 2θ. Raman spectra were obtained for ZnO synthesised at 200°C and 300°C temperatures. The initial permeability, Q-factor and relative loss factor were measured using vector network analyser. Results show high value of Q-factor (~43) of the ZnO-CNTs at frequency between 20-30 MHz. The nanoparticles also show low relative loss factor for frequencies above 10 MHz. The grain size, morphology and shape of the particles were characterized using FESEM and revealed rod-like structures. The CNT dipole transmitter system using improved CNT dipole antenna and CNT-ZnO detector record an enhancement of 192% and can be used for hydrocarbon detection.
Andreas Öchsner, Irina V. Belova and Graeme E. Murch
H. M. Zaid et al., "Synthesis and Characterizations of ZnO Nanoparticles for Application in Electromagnetic Detectors", Journal of Nano Research, Vol. 13, pp. 93-98, 2011