Thermochromic glazing is a type of intelligent glazing; one where the properties of the glazing change according to some external stimulus. More particularly a thermochromic window is a device that changes its transmission and reflectance properties at a critical temperature (Tc). Atthis specific temperature the material undergoes a semi-conductor to metal transition. At temperatures lower than Tc the window lets all of the solar energy that hits it through. At emperatures above Tc the window reflects the infra-red portion of solar energy. In such a way thermochromic windows may help reduce air conditioning and heating costs leading to more energy efficient buildings. This review details the nature of the semi-conductor to metal transition and indicates how substitutional doping within a crystal lattice can be used to manipulate and fine tune the critical temperature. Also detailed is the underlying science and methodologies so far employed in the production of thermochromic thin films.